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This study reports on the changes in stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms of subscribers after 3 months using Text4Hope, a supportive text messaging program designed to provide support during the pandemic.
Standardized self-report measures were used to evaluate perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-10 [PSS-10]), anxiety (measured with the General Anxiety Disorder Scale 7 [GAD-7]), and depressive symptoms (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]), at baseline and 3rd month (n = 373).
After 3 months of using Text4Hope, subscribers’ self-reports revealed significant (p< 0.001) mean score reductions compared with baseline on: the GAD-7 by 22.7%, PHQ-9 by 10.3%, and PSS-10 scores by 5.7%. Reductions in inferred prevalence rates for moderate to high symptoms were also observed, with anxiety demonstrating the largest reduction (15.7%).
Observed Text4Hope-related reductions in psychological distress during COVID-19 indicate that Text4Hope is an effective, convenient, and accessible means of implementing a population-level psychological intervention.
Until the past half-century, all agriculture and land management was framed by local institutions strong in social capital. But neoliberal forms of development came to undermine existing structures, thus reducing sustainability and equity. The past 20 years, though, have seen the deliberate establishment of more than 8 million new social groups across the world. This restructuring and growth of rural social capital within specific territories is leading to increased productivity of agricultural and land management systems, with particular benefits for those previously excluded. Further growth would occur with more national and regional policy support.
Little is known about terrestrial climate dynamics in the Levant during the penultimate interglacial-glacial period. To decipher the palaeoclimatic history of the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 glacial period, a well-dated stalagmite (~194 to ~154 ka) from Kanaan Cave on the Mediterranean coast in Lebanon was analyzed for its petrography, growth history, and stable isotope geochemistry. A resolved climate record has been recovered from this precisely U–Th dated speleothem, spanning the late MIS 7 and early MIS 6 at low resolution and the mid–MIS 6 at higher resolution. The stalagmite grew discontinuously from ~194 to ~163 ka. More consistent growth and higher growth rates between ~163 and ~154 ka are most probably linked to increased water recharge and thus more humid conditions. More distinct layering in the upper part of the speleothem suggests strong seasonality from ~163 ka to ~154 ka. Short-term oxygen and carbon isotope excursions were found between ~155 and ~163 ka. The inferred Kanaan Cave humid intervals during the mid–MIS 6 follow variations of pollen records in the Mediterranean basins and correlate well with the synthetic Greenland record and East Asian summer monsoon interstadial periods, indicating short warm/wet periods similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during MIS 4–3 in the eastern Mediterranean region.
Investigating the human dimension of conservation science warrants an interdisciplinary approach. Criminologists and criminal justice scholars have begun to empirically examine various issues that are directly related to conservation, including wildlife law enforcement. This qualitative study of job satisfaction among law enforcement rangers in a protected area in Uganda contributes to both criminal justice and conservation science. Based on interviews and participant observation we identified four main themes that contributed positively to the job satisfaction of rangers: their role in aiding Uganda's conservation efforts and national development; financial stability and familial support; conducting frontline work and establishing ownership of the Park; and opportunities for personal and social development. We discuss the implications of our findings for Park management capacity building as well as for future interdisciplinary and qualitative scholarship in conservation science.
Poetical work, Aristotle said, is more philosophical than history. If this is so then it is also more ‘historical’ than history, as Nietzsche argued, because the ‘history’ that poems touch and re-present encompasses a far greater scale of possible, and therefore real, human times and events than the most careful and scholarly historical text.
In writing this introduction to these two volumes of essays derived from two symposia at Queen's University Belfast on United Islands? Multilingual Radical Poetry and Folk-Song in Britain and Ireland 1770–1820, I am perhaps less, but certainly differently, apprehensive than when with my fellow editors we were formulating an AHRC Research Networking application which required for its success high quality, scholarly, interdisciplinary participation from England, Scotland, Wales, Ulster and the Irish Republic and, not least, North America. If we asked them, would they come? The response was, in fact, so positive that, some participants returning, we had to hold a second symposium. Fearing a famine, we actually had a feast.
I will later return as to why there was such a convergence of geographically diverse talents on Queen's University. For the moment my partly-retrospective belief is that Belfast itself, the ghostly historical political and sectarian pressures of the 1790s wholly precursive of the city's still severe contemporary divisions, significantly brought home to the participants, as perhaps no other British city could, the relevance of the 1790s to our present condition. Despite Wordsworth's insistence on the pastoral imagination, song-filled British cities were the key centres not only of conflicting political activity but literary creativity in this period. Belfast, as Ireland, was the site of actual violence. It was here that the American influenced Volunteers were formed initiating a trail of violence that was to lead to Wexford and 30,000 Irish dead in 1798.
In the aftermath of the American and French Revolutions, the 1790s brought a huge outpouring of poetry and song in support of radicalism in Great Britain and Ireland. The essays in this volume deal with radical poetry in Ireland, Highland and Lowland Scotland, and Wales, as well as in the regions of England and London, placing the 1790s in a broader historical and cultural context. Much of the material drawn on is non-canonical, unstudied, and in one of the Celtic languages or in Scots or dialect English. The contributors are able to show that reactionary political verse is a pan-British phenomenon, and that the writing of this period has fundamental implications for the history of Britain. They show how poetry and song can reveal the relations between the four nations at this time, particularly that between England with the other three.