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The Japanese second deep ice coring project was carried out at Dome Fuji, Antarctica. Following the drilling of the pilot hole in 2001, deep ice core drilling led by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) was conducted over four austral summer seasons, beginning with the 2003/04 season and reached a depth of 3035.22 m near the bedrock in January 2007. The new drill was designed and developed with the goals of (1) solving the problems encountered during the first JARE deep coring drill and (2) achieving more efficient drilling. In particular, the maximum core length that can be drilled at one time was increased from 2.30 m to 3.84 m and the chip storage efficiency was enhanced by a special pipe with many small holes. This paper gives an outline of the improved drilling system, the progress of drilling and various drilling data.
A glacier at the summit of Ushkovsky volcano, Kamchatka peninsula, Russia, was studied in order to obtain information about the physical characteristics of a glacier that fills a volcanic crater. The glacier has a gentle surface and a concave basal profile with a maximum measured depth of 240 m at site K2. The annual accumulation rate was 0.54 m a−1 w.e., and the 10 m depth temperature was −15.8°C. A 211.70 m long ice core drilled at K2 indicates that (1) the site is categorized as a percolation zone, (2) the stress field in the glacier changes at 180 m depth from vertical and longitudinal compression with transversal extension, which is divergent flow, to a shear-dominated stress field, and (3) the frequent occurrence of ash layers can be a good tool for dating the ice core. The borehole temperature profiles were considered to be non-stationary, but the linear profile made it possible to estimate the basal temperature and the geothermal heat flux at K2. Assuming constant surface and the basal boundary conditions, we constructed two depth–age relationships at K2. These predicted that the bottom ages of the ice core were about 511 or 603 years.
Acidity is an environmental condition commonly encountered by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and fermented foods. In the present study, 22 strains of Bifidobacterium were screened for acid tolerance in artificial gastric juice (AGJ, pH 3·0) and fermented milk. AGJ tolerance was found to be strain-specific, with a pronounced variation among the strains. Several strains with a high survival rate in AGJ that belonged to Bifid. longum, Bifid. breve and Bifid. adolescentis were selected. Among them, only strain BL1 of Bifid longum was found to possess a high survival rate in fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Strain BL1 exhibited a survival rate of more than 25% in AGJ at pH 3·0 for 2 h and maintained a viable cfu level of more than 108 per gram of product in fermented milk (pH 4·6) under refrigerated conditions for 2 weeks. The acid tolerance of strain BL1 was found to depend on the final growth pH (<4·5). Rapid loss of acid tolerance was observed when the cells were shifted from acid to neutral conditions by addition of NaOH. Strain BL1 cells were able to maintain much higher intracellular pH under acid conditions, in comparison with those of AGJ sensitive mutant (BL1-S) or cells that lost acid tolerance following pH shifting from acid to neutral conditions. These results suggested that a cytoplasmic pH homeostasis system may function in the acid tolerance response in this strain.
We present a case of pulmonary embolism that occurred during the injection of lipiodol during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization under general anaesthesia. A 7-year-old child suffering from a large hepatoblastoma was admitted for arterial chemoembolization and carcinostatic administration. Pulmonary embolism due to lipiodol during arterial chemoembolization was evident by a sudden fall in oxyhaemoglobin saturation from 100 to 90%. This was associated with a spread of lipiodol into both lungs, particularly the middle lung zones and detected by chest fluoroscopy. Arterial blood gases returned to normal values 1 day later but pulmonary infiltration persisted for 7 days before final clearance. Pulmonary embolism caused by lipiodol during arterial chemoembolization is infrequent, but such a complication could prove fatal. Understanding the risk of pulmonary embolism in patients receiving lipiodol, during and after arterial chemoembolization, and late onset pulmonary injury is important and a close follow-up for several days after arterial chemoembolization is advisable.
The electrical conductivity has been measured for the glasses in the system B2O3–Li2O–Li2X2(X = F, Cl, Br), where Li2O is replaced by Li2X2 with Li content kept constant. The conductivity decreases for F glasses and increases for Cl and Br glasses with increasing halide ion content, which is caused by the increase in the activation energy for F glasses and the decrease for Cl and Br glasses. The analysis of the activation energy in terms of the Anderson-Stuart model indicates that, with the increase in LiX, Δ Eb, (the electrostatic energy) increases for F glass, whereas ΔEs (the strain energy) and ΔEb decrease for Cl or Br glasses. The effects of F− and other halide ions are attributed to a stronger interaction between Li and F, and to expanded and weakened glass network due to accommodation of Br− and Cl− ions.
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