Ailettes (3, 15, 18, 94)
from the Fr. for little wing, a decorative piece of rigid leather or textile worn at the shoulder; most often of rectangular form. They display the wearer's heraldic blazon referred to as a man's ‘arms’ (see Figure 1 and Figure 19). In the documents they are often paired with the coat armour – a fabric over-garment for displaying these arms: whence ‘coat of arms’. There is no evidence for ailettes or coat armours serving any defensive purpose.
from Arabic alqūtn: cotton, a well-padded all-fabric torso defence, usually with sleeves. There are two instances of sleeves reinforced with whale baleen (9, 15). Documents (28, 79) provide detail of materials and construction. It was an essential foundation for the hauberk, haubergeon, and other mail defences (e.g. 22). That the aketon could also be for men of means or serve as a livery is evidenced by reference to those emblazoned with a red lion with forked tail (34) and to the heraldic arms of the Despensers (35). They could be upcycled from other defences, as one was made from a gambeson (9). The ‘white’ aketon (28, 34, 39) possibly had a good-quality linen facing and was thus superior to the standard type.
a thrusting dagger – the name derived from awl: a stout, cylindrical, sharp-pointed tool for making holes in wood, leather, and other materials.
Arm defences: see Besagews, Bracer, Couter, Cuir bouilli, Gusset, Manifer, Pauldron, Rerebrace, Sleeves, Spaudlers, Vambrace.
Arming doublet: see Doublet.
Arming sword: see Sword.
coverings: these can be divided into two categories – the first, coverings that are integral to a defence in its construction, such as the facing riveted to the pair of plates or brigandine. The second are of removable type or easily detached by cutting thread stitching (see Figure 2). They come in a range of materials of varying quality and cost depending on the depth of the buyer's pockets.
linen: see Linen.
linings: the regulations of the armourers of London and Paris provide great detail as to materials and construction. See Pourpoint. Lining of armour for single combat (14, 128), of basinets (79, 143), of various defences (81, 138), of pallets (94), eaten by rats (101), insides of armour parts lined with satin (136) (see Figure 2 and Figure 3).