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A simple and fast method for thickness measurements using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is described. The method is applicable on samples with a thickness smaller than the electron depth range and does not require any knowledge of instrumental parameters. The thickness is determined by means of the distance that electrons travel inside the sample before crossing through it. Samples are first deposited on a substrate that, when reached by the transmitted electrons, produces an X-ray signal. The measured characteristic X-ray line intensity of the substrate is later used to determine the energy of transmitted electrons, which is proportional to the distance that electrons travel inside the sample. The study was performed on spherical K411 glass particles and cylindrical particles of U–Ce oxide with a size ranging from 0.2 to 4 μm. The measured thicknesses of all the studied particles showed good agreements with the real values. Although the method is only validated on particles with usual shapes, it can be applied to determine a local thickness of thin samples with irregular morphologies. This can help solving multiple issues in analysis with EPMA of non-bulk samples exhibiting complex geometries. Three dimensional microscopic imaging could also find a good utility in the described method.
In patients suffering from depression, neuropsychological deficiencies of attention, memory, psychomotor speed and executive functions are observed.
The aim of this study is to find relationship between selected cognitive functions, and intensity of depression and anxiety as state and trait in depressed patients.
16 Patients meeting the ICD 10 criteria of depressive disorders (F32, F33) were recruited. Patients with mild-to-moderate depression as measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score were included in the study. The battery of cognitive neuropsychological tests used to assess cognitive functions included: trail making test, part A and B, and Stroop test, part RCNb and NCWd. The intensity of anxiety as state and trait was assessed with the use of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The results were analyzed statistically.
Results of the study:
In the examined group no statistically significant relation between the results neuropsychological tests (trail making test, part A and B, Stroop test) and the intensity of depression measured with BDI, and the intensity of anxiety as state and trait, measured with STAI was found. Interestingly a statistically significant relation was found between intensity of depression and intensity of anxiety.
It seems interesting that no co-relation between the clinical symptoms and cognitive functions was found. It may be consistent with some of the observations, according to which a pharmacological treatment of depression causes an improvement in cognitive functioning of the patients which is independent of the clinical improvement.
Cognitive deficits and anxiety are common symptoms in patients suffering from schizophrenia.
The aim of the research was to find a relationship between selected cognitive functions and intensity of anxiety as state and trait in people suffering from schizophrenia.
18 patients (9 women and 9 men) with a diagnose of paranoidal schizophrenia (according to ICD-10) were recruited to the study. The battery of cognitive neuropsychological tests used to assess cognitive functions included: trail making tests, part A and B, and Stroop test, part RCNb and NCWd. The intensity of anxiety as state and trait was assessed by means of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
In the examined group statistically significant relation was found between the results of trail making test, part A and B (measuring psychomotor speed and visual spatial working memory), as well as part RCNb of the Stroop test (measuring reading speed), and the intensity of anxiety as state measured with STAI. Another statistically significant correlation was found between results of trail making test, part A (measuring psychomotor speed) and anxiety as trait measured with STAI. No other significant correlations between results of the applied cognitive tests and anxiety as state and trait were found.
The above correlations between cognitive tests results and intensity of anxiety indicate that there must be a modulating impact of emotions on some of measured cognitive functions. The awareness of these correlations may be important in the process of constructing rehabilitation programmes for patients.
Lauren Edelman’s Working Law: Courts, Corporation, and Symbolic Civil Rights (2016) is remarkably relevant to the study of financial regulation. In particular, three factors that Edelman identifies as contributing to legal endogeneity and symbolic compliance—ambiguous law, a lack of clear outcome measures, and the presence of legal intermediaries—are especially salient in this context. It has long been recognized that powerful financial institutions and the lawyers, lobbyists, and other agents who serve them have the ability to influence the law ex ante, through political lobbying. Edelman’s work reinforces the point that they may also do so ex post through an endogenous process of interpretation, implementation, and, ultimately, enshrinement of symbolic compliance with ambiguous law.
We study an impact of the financial intermediation on economic growth. We assume the simple model of the economic growth in the form of an autonomous dynamical system with a financial sector represented by banks and real sector represented by households and firms. We assume that financial intermediation services are described by financial intermediation technology which is a function depending on the share of labor employed by banks. Investments realized by firms depend not only on savings accumulated by banks but also on financial intermediation technology. We obtain a three-dimensional dynamical system and analyze the existence of a saddle equilibrium in the growth process associated with financial intermediation. Using mathematical methods of dynamical systems, we analyze growth paths, and we study the stationary states of the system and their stability. We found that equilibrium is reached only by trajectories located on two submanifolds. The resulting analysis provides an insight into the saddle solution with a stable incoming separatrix lying on one of the invariant manifolds.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.