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In many systems consisting of interacting subsystems, the complex interactions between elements can be represented using multilayer networks. However percolation, key to understanding connectivity and robustness, is not trivially generalised to multiple layers. This Element describes a generalisation of percolation to multilayer networks: weak multiplex percolation. A node belongs to a connected component if at least one of its neighbours in each layer is in this component. The authors fully describe the critical phenomena of this process. In two layers with finite second moments of the degree distributions the authors observe an unusual continuous transition with quadratic growth above the threshold. When the second moments diverge, the singularity is determined by the asymptotics of the degree distributions, creating a rich set of critical behaviours. In three or more layers the authors find a discontinuous hybrid transition which persists even in highly heterogeneous degree distributions, becoming continuous only when the powerlaw exponent reaches $1+1/(M-1)$ for $M$ layers.
This article aims to discuss to what extent populist parties with opposite ideological backgrounds have differed in their policies towards inherited external financial liberalization (EFL). Building upon a comparative case study centred on Argentina under Kirchnerism (2003–15) and Hungary under Viktor Orbán (since 2010), I conclude that both experiences led to a partial EFL reversal. However, reflecting their opposite ideological underpinnings, each subtype of populism opted to restrict a different dimension of EFL. Argentina's left-wing populism re-regulated cross-border capital flows, harming financial operators, foreign investors and primary exporters through capital controls and export surrenders. These interventionist capital account regulations were needed to shield expansionary macroeconomic policies that attended the interests of subordinate socioeconomic strata, fuelling the tension with financial markets and domestic economic elites. Conversely, Hungary's right-wing populism focused on the ownership structure of the banking sector, aiming to redistribute assets from foreign to domestic private banks and improve the credit conditions for native capitalists. In this case, even when resorting to macroeconomic heterodoxy, the maintenance of fiscal balance and price stability retained support from both foreign investors and domestic business groups, mitigating tensions derived from financial nationalism.
Scientists are working to identify prevention/treatment methods and clinical outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nutritional status and diet have a major impact on the COVID-19 health-disease process, mainly due to the bidirectional interaction between gut-lung axis. Individuals with inadequate nutritional status have a pre-existing imbalance in the gut microbiota and immunity as seen in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, or other chronic diseases. Communication between the gut microbiota and lungs or other organs and systems may trigger worse clinical outcomes in viral respiratory infections. Thus, this review addresses new insights into the use of probiotics and prebiotics as a preventive nutritional strategy in managing respiratory infections such as COVID-19 and highlighting their anti-inflammatory effects against the main signs and symptoms associated with COVID-19. The search for studies was performed through Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases; relevant clinical articles were included. Significant randomized clinical trials suggest that specific probiotics and/or prebiotics reduce diarrhoea, abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, cough, sore throat, fever, and viral infection complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. These beneficial effects are linked with modulation of the microbiota, products of microbial metabolism with antiviral activity, and immune regulatory properties of specific probiotics and prebiotics through of Treg cell production and function. There is a need to conduct clinical and pre-clinical trials to assess the effect of consuming these components together with the current therapies in COVID-19.
The mechanism of harmonic generation in both O- and X-mode configurations for a magnetized plasma has been explored here in detail with the help of particle-in-cell simulations. A detailed characterization of both the reflected and transmitted electromagnetic radiation propagating in the bulk of the plasma has been carried out for this purpose. The efficiency of harmonic generation is shown to increase with the incident laser intensity. A dependency of harmonic efficiency has also been found on magnetic field strength. This work demonstrates that there is an optimum value of the magnetic field at which the efficiency of harmonic generation maximizes. The observations are in agreement with theoretical analysis. For the O-mode configuration, this is compelling as the harmonic generation provides for a mechanism by which laser energy can propagate inside an overdense plasma region.
The diversity of species and their interactions have been positively related with environmental complexity. Therefore, highly anthropized environments have their integrity under serious threat. These effects may last for years compromising the dynamics of natural communities, such as antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, including host-natural enemy interactions. To investigate these effects, trap nest methodology was used to assess the diversity of solitary bees, wasps and their natural enemies in three fragmented environments with different degree of anthropic perturbation, composed of a Eucalyptus plantation (considered here as higher perturbation), a Cerrado area (medium perturbation) and a Riparian forest (lesser perturbation). Then, host-natural enemies associations were analysed to verify the size, specialization degree and modularity of interaction network. The gradient from highest to lowest degree of anthropic perturbation was evidenced in the species diversity index, the size of the interaction network and the specialization indexes of the host-natural enemy network. The environment with Eucalyptus plantation showed higher values of diversity of natural enemies, greater number of species in the interaction network, lesser degree of specialization in the interaction and lesser modularity, than Cerrado and Riparian forest environments, respectively. The low degree of nestedness and lack of significance of this index to all sampled areas are indicative of a specialized pattern of networks. The results corroborate the notion that human impact may affect interaction networks, this being an important tool for checking the degree of anthropic alteration.
We report a case of thyroid storm precipitated by SARS-CoV-2 infection in an adolescent girl with history of Graves disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. This case highlights that SARS-CoV-2 infection can potentially trigger a thyrotoxicosis crisis and acute decompensated heart failure in a patient with underlying thyroid disease and myocardial dysfunction even in the absence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. We systematically reviewed the thyrotoxicosis cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection and described its impact on pre-existing dilated cardiomyopathy.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and restrained eating behavior (REB) are characterized by reduced food intake to achieve body weight loss. This scope review aimed to describe the existing evidence on the association between anorexia nervosa, restrictive eating behavior and food consumption. Studies with children and adolescents of both sexes of all races and ethnicities were included. Experimental and observational studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, case reports or series, conference abstracts, dissertations and theses were also included. The search was conducted in ten electronic databases and gray literature without language restriction on November 14, 2020. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies included girls and identified lower intake of calories, fat and certain micronutrients. There was also a higher intake of caffeine, fiber, vegetables, legumes and fruits and a lower intake of low-quality snack, fast food, sweets and foods with high carbohydrate and fat contents. The need to improve the quality of the diet among study participants was also identified. Thus, it is recommended that the evaluation of food consumption be careful to develop effective prevention strategies for the development of AN/REB and minimize nutritional deficiencies in these individuals.
Cactus pear is an important species for animal feeding in the regions of dry climate. There is no information on the fertilization with coated urea in the cultivation of cactus pear under rainfed conditions in the savannah region. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the forage potential of Nopalea cochenillifera variety Doce in yellow latosol under rainfed conditions in the Brazilian savannah, comparing the fertilization with urea and coated urea in different levels. A randomized block design was adopted, in a 2 × 4 × 2 factorial scheme, with the factors corresponding to two sources of nitrogen (urea and urea coated with polymers, N+), four levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 240 kg/ha/year) and two harvests (year I and year II). The plants were evaluated after 1 year of growth, in each year of evaluation, regarding the characteristics of growth, production, chemical and mineral composition and nutritional value. The level of 240 kg/ha provided higher emission of cladodes per plant (17.33 and 18.17), respectively, for N+ and urea. The highest nitrogen use efficiency was found in the level of 60 kg N/ha (142 kg/ha/year). NFC values were 3.5 g/kg dry matter (DM) higher when the cactus pear was fertilized with urea in year I and 5.4 g/kg DM in year II. The use of conventional urea promoted better results of agronomic and nutritional characteristics of the cactus pear, under rainfed regime, when compared to the use of urea coated with polymers.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity that typically develops after the administration of infant formula, suggesting a link between nutritional components and disease development. One of the most significant complications that develops in patients with NEC is severe lung injury. We have previously shown that the administration of a nutritional formula that is enriched in pre-digested triglycrides that do not require lipase action can significantly reduce the severity of NEC in a mouse model. We now hypothesize that this 'pre-digested fat system (PDF)' may reduce NEC-associated lung injury. In support of this hypothesis, we now show that rearing newborn mice on a nutritional formula based on the 'pre-digested fat (PDF) system’ promotes lung development, as evidenced by increased tight junctions and surfactant protein expression. Mice who were administered this 'PDF fat system’ were significantly less vulnerable to the development of NEC-induced lung inflammation, and the administration of the 'PDF fat system’ conferred lung protection. In seeking to define the mechanisms involved, the administration of the PDF system’ significantly enhanced lung maturation and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest that the PDF system protects the development of NEC-induced lung injury through effects on lung maturation and reduced reactive oxygen species in the lung, and also increase lung maturation in non-NEC mice.
During the period of economic reforms in India, the crisis in manufacturing employment has manifested not only in terms of what is characterised variedly as jobless or job loss growth (falling labour intensity and even absolute decline in numbers) (Das, Sen and Das 2015; Mehrotra and Parida 2019) but also in certain trends which suggest a decline in the quality of employment. These include (a) a steady rise in contractual jobs in the so-called organised manufacturing (Srivastava 2016: 10–12), (b) a decline in the manufacturing employment elasticity at least since the turn of the century (Giri and Singh 2017: 9) and (c) the continued dominance of informality in both production and labour processes across sectors, or the low road syndrome, reflecting entrepreneurial immaturity (Tooze 2017; Das 2005, 2017).
Even as, historically, micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have been recognised as sources of large-scale job generation, accommodating a wide range of skills and age groups, firms adopt strategies that could reduce costs of production and compliance while they continue to identify and access echelons of markets. MSMEs have no intention of effecting numerical changes to employment, irrespective of what policy expects. MSMEs, even in the face of uncertain market demand and low resources (to invest in the expansion of production and acquiring new technology), have often displayed dynamism and resilience. Unlike integrated large plants constrained by the indivisibility of factors of production, MSMEs in a cluster have been mutually supportive, whether in sharing bulk orders through in-cluster subcontracting or through small-batch production to cater to niche markets or even by using workers from another factory. This has implied that business has thrived through a curious admixture of competition and cooperation in clusters with the munificent role played by the local industry association.
The study, based on both primary and secondary sources of information, aims at understanding what drives the growth and external orientation of MSMEs in the ceramic clusters of Morbi in the western Indian state of Gujarat. This is to unravel the nature of positive transformation, including unleashing the potential to generate jobs, that could be effected through proactive, responsive and symbiotic approaches to policy initiatives, including rescaling territory, infusing an innovative ethos and reaching out to wider markets.
To assess the influence of presbylarynx and presbycusis on Voice Handicap Index and emotional status.
A case–control, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted of patients aged 65 years or older referred to an otorhinolaryngology department from January to September 2020. Presbycusis was assessed by pure tone and vocal audiometry. Each subject underwent fibre-optic videolaryngoscopy with stroboscopy, and presbylarynx was considered when two or more of the following endoscopic findings were identified: vocal fold bowing, prominence of vocal processes in abduction, and a spindle-shaped glottal gap. Each subject completed two questionnaires: Voice Handicap Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (short-form).
The studied population included 174 White European subjects, with a mean age of 73.99 years, of whom 22.8 per cent presented both presbylarynx and presbycusis. Multivariate linear regression revealed that only presence and severity of presbylarynx had an influence on Voice Handicap Index-30 scores. However, both spindle-shaped glottal gap and presbycusis influenced Geriatric Depression Scale scores.
Presbylarynx has a strong association with the impact of voice on quality of life. Presbylarynx and presbycusis seem to have a cumulative effect on emotional status.
To investigate the influence of parental physical activity on offspring’s nutritional status in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.
Birth cohort study.
The main outcomes were overweight and obesity status of children. The main exposure was parental physical activity over time, measured during the 11, 15 and 18 years of age follow-ups. The exposure was operationalised as cumulative, and the most recent measure before the birth of child. We adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance to evaluate crude and adjusted associations between parental physical activity and offspring’s nutritional status. All analyses were stratified according to the sex of the parent.
A total of 874 members from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort followed-up at 22 years of age with their first-born child were analysed.
Children were, on average, 3·1 years old. Crude analyses showed that the mother’s cumulative physical activity measure had an indirect association with the prevalence of children’s obesity. The most recent maternal physical activity measure before the birth of the child was associated with 41 % lower prevalence of obesity in children, even after adjustment for confounders.
The most recent maternal physical activity measure was indirectly associated with the prevalence of obesity in children. No associations were found for fathers, reinforcing the hypothesis of a biological effect of maternal physical activity on offspring’s nutritional status.
Herein is reported the first occurrence of ostracodes from the Iapó Formation, an uppermost Ordovician unit of the Rio Ivaí Group in the Paraná basin, Brazil. Two ostracode species were identified in the Três Barras Farm section: Harpabollia harparum (Troedsson, 1918) and Satiellina paranaensis Adôrno and Salas in Adôrno et al., 2016 were recovered from dropstone-bearing shale overlying glaciogenic diamictites, a feature typical of Hirnantian (uppermost Ordovician) strata throughout Gondwana. The taxonomy of the Genus Harpabollia, as well as its type species Harpabollia harparum, was reviewed, and emended and new diagnoses were respectively proposed for each taxon. Occurrences of Harpabollia harparum and Satiellina species were common in areas influenced by cold waters. Additionally, the occurrence of Harpabollia harparum, an index species to the uppermost Ordovician of several stratigraphic units in Baltica and southern Gondwana, allowed us to infer a Hirnantian age for the deposits of the Iapó Formation. Other than being associated with Harpabollia harparum in Iapó Formation of the Paraná basin, Satiellina paranaensis is also found in lower levels of the Vila Maria Formation; therefore, these are also considered Hirnantian in age. Above these lower levels of the Vila Maria Formation, a well-dated Rhuddanian (lowermost Llandovery, Silurian) palynomorph assemblage is observed within the formation. These occurrences are evidence of a continuous process of sedimentary deposition during the Ordovician–Silurian transition in the Paraná basin.
A position and energy-sensitive detector has been developed for atom probe tomography (APT) instruments in order to deal with some mass peak overlap issues encountered in APT experiments. Through this new type of detector, quantitative and qualitative improvements could be considered for critical materials with mass peak overlaps, such as nitrogen and silicon in TiSiN systems, or titanium and carbon in cemented carbide materials. This new detector is based on a thin carbon foil positioned on the front panel of a conventional MCP-DLD detector. According to several studies, it has been demonstrated that the impact of ions on thin carbon foils has the effect of generating a number of transmitted and reflected secondary electrons. The number generated mainly depends on both the kinetic energy and the mass of incident particles. Despite the fact that this phenomenon is well known and has been widely discussed for decades, no studies have been performed to date for using it as a means to discriminate particles energy. Therefore, this study introduces the first experiments on a potential new generation of APT detectors that would be able to resolve mass peak overlaps through the energy-sensitivity of thin carbon foils.
Reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing physical activity (PA) by sitting less and standing/walking more is advised to prevent chronic diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying this recommendation are not well established, especially in individuals with obesity living in low-income regions. The present study evaluated whether there are associations between PA indicators (PAI – standing time, walking time and the number of steps/d) and SB indicators (SBI – sitting/lying down time) with the hormonal profile and resting energy expenditure (REE) of adult women living in a low-income region. This is a cross-sectional study. We collected data on hormones (insulin resistance, leptin and thyroid axis), body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance), REE (indirect calorimetry), and PAI and SBI (triaxial accelerometers, ActivPAL). Multivariable linear models adjusting for age and fat-free mass were performed. Fifty-eight women (mean age of 31 years and BMI of 33 kg/m2) were included. The mean sitting/lying down time and standing time were 16·08 and 5·52 h/d, respectively. Sitting/lying down time showed a direct association with free thyroxine (FT4) (β = 0·56 ng/dl; 95 % CI = −1·10, −0·02). Standing time showed a direct association with FT4 (β = 0·75 ng/dl; 95 % CI = 0·01; 1·48) and inverse association with free triiodothyronine (β = −2·83 pg/ml 95 % CI = −5·56, −0·10). There were no associations between PAI and SBI with the REE, insulin resistance, leptin and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thus, decreased SB is associated with thyroid hormones levels but not with REE, insulin resistance or leptin in women with obesity living in low-income regions.
Cardiovascular diseases are among the main causes of death in Brazil and worldwide. The literature indicates the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HTWP) as an accessible alternative for the identification of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with HTWP in individuals diagnosed with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). A cross-sectional study was conducted with individuals diagnosed with AH and/or DM2. The study data were collected through semi-structured interviews containing socio-demographic information, lifestyle, health care, in addition to anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical blood tests. The prevalence of HTWP was estimated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with HTWP. Of the 788 individuals analysed, 21⋅5 % had the HTWP. In the adjusted model, the following variables remained associated with a greater chance of presenting HTWP: sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Being female increased the chance of HTWP by 7⋅7 times (OR 7⋅7; 95 % CI 3⋅9, 15⋅2). The one-year increase in age increased the chance of HTWP by 4 % (OR 1⋅04; 95 % CI 1⋅02, 1⋅06). The addition of 1 mg/dl of VLDL-c increased the chance of HTWP by 15 % (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅12, 1⋅18), as well as the increase of 1 kg/m2 in the BMI increased the chance of this condition by 20 % (OR 1⋅20; 95 % CI 1⋅15, 1⋅27). The prevalence of HTWP was associated with females, older age, higher BMI, higher VLDL-c and risk waist/height ratio.
Dietary supplements have been increasingly used by gym users and are often consumed without the guidance of a health professional. Moreover, the indiscriminate supplements use can have adverse health effects, such as changes in liver and kidney function. The aim of this study was to verify the association between dietary supplements intake with alterations in the liver and kidney function among gym users. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 594 gym users (mean age 37 (sd 14) years, 55·2 % women) from a city in southern Brazil. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the use of dietary supplements. The markers of the liver (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase) and renal (creatinine and urea) function were also evaluated on a subsample of the study population. Data were analysed by binary logistic regression, adjusted for sex, age and education. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 36·0 %. Individuals who intake dietary supplements showed a higher prevalence to present slight alterations in the AST enzyme and in the urea after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, the use of dietary supplement was associated with slight alterations in AST enzyme and in the urea among gym users. These findings show the importance of using supplements correctly, especially with guidance from professionals trained to avoid possible risks to health.
Nutritional studies shifted the focus of attention to the analysis of food quality, addressing general diet considering the foods, food groups and nutrients included. This study evaluates the association between diet quality index, food and nutrient intake and metabolic parameters of adolescents from Recife, northeastern Brazil. It is a cross-sectional study involving adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Food intake was assessed using the FFQ to estimate the adapted Diet Quality Index for Adolescents for Brazilians (DQIA-BR-A). The analysis included metabolic parameters (glucose, lipid profile, apo A1 and B, α-1-acid glycoprotein, retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathormone). Multiple linear regression analysis between the DQIA-BR-A and daily nutrient intake showed a positive correlation (R2adjusted = 0·29) for linoleic fatty acid, Ca and folate and a negative correlation for oleic fatty acid, carbohydrates and vitamins B2 and C, in addition to a low correlation (R2adjusted < 0·07) with all metabolic parameters. However, the DQIA-BR-A correlated significantly (R2adjusted = 0·62; P < 0·001) with food intake. In this way, the DQIA-BR-A can be considered as an accurate and useful instrument for assessing the overall quality of adolescent diets. The diet of the adolescents was considered to be of moderate quality. Changes are required to ensure a balanced diet, considering the high-sugar intake and consumption of sweets as well as the low consumption of vegetables, milk and dairy products, oils, fats and seeds. Such changes should prioritise the consumption of foods rich in essential fatty acids and poor in saturated fat.