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The goal of natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) is to compensate the public for losses to natural resources from past or ongoing hazardous releases, including losses that may persist into the future. Compensation is delivered in the form of restoration projects. Resolving NRDA liability requires balancing losses and restoration benefits over multiple decades and converting them into a present value for calculating appropriate damages. For the past two decades, NRDA practitioners have used a real discount rate of 3 % to convert losses and benefits to a present value equivalent. That rate was based, in part, on real historical yields on risk-free debt (e.g., the real rate of return on 3-month Treasury bills). Declining interest rates on risk-free debt in recent years has led to suggestions to reexamine the historical consensus discount rate. This paper reviews two alternative conceptual paradigms for selecting a discount rate in NRDA cases: the social rate of time preference and discount rates for tort cases. We summarize historical data for empirically implementing the two paradigms and discuss the ramifications of the different options. Based on our review, we suggest maintaining the 3 % consensus as a practical solution to a range of empirical candidates within the two conceptual paradigms.
Since emerging in the early 1990s, Estonian hip-hop has developed in line with other cultural and artistic projects in the country, reflecting attempts to foster a homogeneous society, yet ultimately cultivating one where diversity and multiculturalism prevail. As a genre where minority groups are frequently presented as “authentic,” hip-hop and its visual and performative manifestations provide a valuable platform to examine expressions of identity. To this end, several Estonian hip-hop musicians have explored aspects of being “post-Soviet” in contradistinction to official hegemonic discourses, which outright reject the Soviet past and emphasize titular ethnicity as a cornerstone of national identity.
This article uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Multi-Modal Discourse Analysis (MMDA) to examine the lyrics and accompanying video of popular hip-hop song “für Oksana” by “Nublu featuring Gameboy Tetris.” Doing so highlights how the song’s basic narrative acts as a metaphor for experiences of integration processes between ethnic Estonians and Russophones since Estonian independence. I argue that through a combination of linguistic and cultural codeswitching, “für Oksana” constitutes an expression, performance, and negotiation of Russophone Estonian identity from both insider and outsider perspectives, emphasizing the need to understand Russophone Estonians as more than simply “Russians who live in Estonia.”
The present study examined the association of contextual factors (social and food preparation location) with the energy density of meals and snacks consumed in a sample of young Australian adults (18–30 years old) identified using wearable camera technology. Over three consecutive days, a subsample of young adults wore a wearable camera that captured images in 30 s intervals. Eating episodes from 133 participants were annotated for preparation location and social context (covering social interaction and screen use). Over the same period, participants completed daily 24 h recalls. The nutritional composition of meals and snacks was calculated by matching the items identified in the camera to the 24 h recall using time and date stamps. Self-reported data (weight and height) was used to calculate body mass index and (residential postcode) to assign socio-economic status. The association of context and demographic factors with energy density was determined using a mixed linear regression model employing the bootstrap method with bias-corrected and accelerated. In total, 1817 eating episodes were included in the analysis (n 8 preparation unclear and n 15 food components could not be identified excluded). Food prepared within the home was 1⋅1 kJ/g less energy-dense than other preparation locations. Lunches (CI −1⋅7 to −0⋅3) and dinners (CI −1⋅6 to −0⋅5) were both 1⋅0 kJ/g lower in energy density than breakfasts. Snacks were 3⋅5 kJ/g (CI 2⋅8–4⋅1) more energy-dense than breakfasts. Food prepared outside the home and food consumption during snacking appear to be adversely contributing to energy-dense food intake.
In the nineteenth century, Qajar Iran was beset by both internal and external threats to its cohesion. In considering Qajar responses to this condition of threat, scholars have largely emphasized the rise of nationalism and a traumatic encounter with Europe. In this article, instead, I use the two Khuzestan travel narratives of royal engineer Najm al-Molk to draw out an alternative thread of reform discourse based on comparisons and connections with the Ottoman Empire. In his safarnamehs, Najm al-Molk joined the style and preoccupations of modern engineering to existing Persianate discourses on rule to elaborate the concept of abadi, a social, political, and material condition encompassing land, people, and state. His advocacy for making Khuzestan abadan was aimed at integrating the region more fully into the Qajar domains. In thinking about what constituted abadi and why it was missing in Khuzestan, the engineer’s major reference point was Ottoman Basra. Traveling around the Basra-Khuzestan borderlands helped Najm al-Molk frame the Ottoman Empire as an example for the Qajar future and a factor in producing the Qajar present. The article both analyzes and follows Najm al-Molk’s use of comparison in order to draw out a broader imperial comparison between late imperial rule in the Ottoman and Qajar lands. I argue that taking seriously Najm al-Molk’s view that the Qajars and Ottomans were comparable can help us use their peripheries to understand late Qajar history outside the national frame of “Iran.”
Brands, marketing and communications across universities have become increasingly competitive to engage national and international audiences to come to study at a UK university (Bamberger, Bronshtein Yemini, 2020). UK universities are under pressure to continuously have a clear brand narrative and corporate visual identities, with a view to striving to be agile, modernised, global and relevant (Mogaji, 2018). However, the identities of some universities are masked behind racist and colonial histories (Gabriel & Tate, 2017). This chapter provides an outline for how universities can meaningfully disrupt their brand to start becoming anti-racist. Universities typically develop their brand around their location, courses, student experience, credibility and career outcomes (Mogaji & Yoon, 2019), but neglect equity and EDI as part of the brand, marketing and communication guiding principles.
Universities’ identities are intrinsically connected to the White structures of colonialism (Doku, 2019) and radicalisation (Law, 2016). It is not possible to dismantle structural racism in a university without recognising its links to White privilege and its impact on the oppression of Black, Asian and minority ethnic people in the UK university system. Law (2016) outlines several issues that disarm universities from addressing their colonial and antiracism as a foundational intellectual project; narrowing the debate concerning race and HE; deprioritising the anti-racist good practice model in institutional identities; marginalising debates about race in HE; and overlooking cross-sectoral and cross-national learning. Disinvestment from addressing these in an HE institution’s brand narrative, identity, communication and marketing can exacerbate the dearth of diversity and inclusion in university spaces.
Some of these themes are conveyed in universities’ professional services where ‘the use of images of racialised staff in university promotional material also attracted comment. Institutions could use them as positive messages that show the institution is not a ‘White’ enclave. Conversely, using such images could be viewed as tokenistic or perfunctory when the images do not match the real university environment. Mirza (2017) repeatedly requested that her photo be removed from college brochures, arguing that ‘[v] isual images of “colourful” happy faces are used to show how the university has embraced the difference’ (Mahony & Weiner, 2020, p 850).
Reading Shakespeare through Drama arises out of case study research which focuses on reading as a socio-cultural practice. Underpinned by theories of reading, learning, drama and play, it is, nevertheless, rooted in the everyday work of secondary English classrooms. Utilising the dialogic ambiguities inherent in Shakespeare's playscripts, this collaborative approach to reading pays particular attention to adolescent readers as meaning-makers and cultural producers. The authors examine different iterations of 'active Shakespeare' pedagogies in the UK, the USA and Australia, drawing a distinction between 'reading through drama' as an approach and the theatre inflected practices promoted by well-known arts-based institutions. Observational and interview data highlight the importance of addressing issues concerning identity and representation that are inevitably raised by the study of canonical literature. Importantly, this Element situates teachers' practice within broader ideological contexts at institutional and national policy level, particularly from the perspective of England's highly regulated system of schooling.
Prisons are susceptible to outbreaks. Control measures focusing on isolation and cohorting negatively affect wellbeing. We present an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large male prison in Wales, UK, October 2020 to April 2021, and discuss control measures.
We gathered case-information, including demographics, staff-residence postcode, resident cell number, work areas/dates, test results, staff interview dates/notes and resident prison-transfer dates. Epidemiological curves were mapped by prison location. Control measures included isolation (exclusion from work or cell-isolation), cohorting (new admissions and work-area groups), asymptomatic testing (case-finding), removal of communal dining and movement restrictions. Facemask use and enhanced hygiene were already in place. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and interviews determined the genetic relationship between cases plausibility of transmission.
Of 453 cases, 53% (n = 242) were staff, most aged 25–34 years (11.5% females, 27.15% males) and symptomatic (64%). Crude attack-rate was higher in staff (29%, 95% CI 26–64%) than in residents (12%, 95% CI 9–15%).
Whole-genome sequencing can help differentiate multiple introductions from person-to-person transmission in prisons. It should be introduced alongside asymptomatic testing as soon as possible to control prison outbreaks. Timely epidemiological investigation, including data visualisation, allowed dynamic risk assessment and proportionate control measures, minimising the reduction in resident welfare.
Baroness Hale has made an exceptional contribution to the development of the law of mental health and mental capacity, as an academic, a Law Commissioner and a judge. This chapter looks at some of the key contributions she has made, highlighting cases of particular interest and her extrajudicial commentary on the future of the law in this sphere.
We report the results of a sensitive search for water maser emission in the Local Group Galaxy NGC 6822 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The observations provide tentative single-epoch detections of four candidates, associated with two infrared-bright star formation regions (Hubble I/III and Hubble IV). The candidate maser detections are all offset from the velocity range where strong emission from Hi neutral gas is observed towards NGC 6822, with the closest offset by
. Our observations include the location of NL1K, a previous tentative water maser detection in NGC 6822. We do not detect any emission from this location with a sensitivity limit approximately a factor of 5 better than the original Sardina Radio Telescope observations.
While the construct of moqi (默契, pronounced ‘mò-chee’) is ubiquitously understood and finds itself in everyday conversations around the home and workplace in China, the theoretical development of moqi has been scarce. In this article, we expand on prior work on moqi and conceptualize moqi as a dyadic level construct that describes a situated state of shared contextualized understanding without saying a word between two counterparties. We further articulate a broader view of moqi as a dyadic communication construct that is both target-specific and situation-specific. We propose a nomological network of moqi that shows how shared contextualized understandings between counterparties are informed by several different layers, including ‘capability’ (a) a generalized proclivity to be able to form such understandings with others, and ‘contributing factors’, (b) how those understandings are formed either (i) through interactions or (ii) without them through overlaps in background characteristics or experiences, and (c) how other factors accentuate the capability and inclination to ultimately achieve moqi. We then discuss several potential consequences of moqi in organizational settings. Finally, we discuss why moqi is a powerful form of effective communication that is meaningful beyond the Chinese cultural context.
In this chapter. clinical examination of the spine in the child is described. The main pathology here is scoliosis and a simplified method of assessing a child with scoliosis is described. This method is similar to a lumbar spine examination, except that during the examination process a few specific points are noted: When inspecting, look for other stigmata associated with scoliosis such as café-au-lait spots. When palpating, remember to use a plumb line, which indicates whether the scoliosis is balanced. When asking the patient to move, look for the rib prominence (Adam’s test) indicating structural scoliosis. Finally, when performing a neurological assessment, remember to look at the abdominal reflexes.
This chapter also covers kyphosis and other conditions such as torticollis.
This article explores an instance of dialect levelling in South East England, the reversal of Cockney diphthong shift. We trace this reversal through an apparent-time analysis of 52 speakers from Debden, a community in Essex with East London heritage. Dynamic vowel analyses of word-list and passage data suggests a reversal of the diphthong shift towards SSBE targets which has occurred most abruptly in those born after 1992 potentially as a result of increased social mobility in this generation. We compare the results in Debden to previous findings in the south-eastern towns of Milton Keynes and Reading where apparent-time change was also observed away from a shifted vowel system and towards SSBE targets (Kerswill & Williams 2000, 2005). In diverse areas of South East England, a common process of levelling towards the pan-regional standard is present which is not occurring exclusively as a result of dialect contact or face-to-face interaction. Nonetheless, each community exhibits a distinct trajectory and timing of language change which can be attributed to different patterns of movement and resettlement and, in particular, access to social mobility and the retention of community networks.
Fossil crinoids are exceptionally suited to deep-time studies of community paleoecology and niche partitioning. By merging ecomorphological trait and phylogenetic data, this Element summarizes niche occupation and community paleoecology of crinoids from the Bromide fauna of Oklahoma (Sandbian, Upper Ordovician). Patterns of community structure and niche evolution are evaluated over a ~5 million-year period through comparison with the Brechin Lagerstätte (Katian, Upper Ordovician). The authors establish filtration fan density, food size selectivity, and body size as major axes defining niche differentiation, and niche occupation is strongly controlled by phylogeny. Ecological strategies were relatively static over the study interval at high taxonomic scales, but niche differentiation and specialization increased in most subclades. Changes in disparity and species richness indicate the transition between the early-middle Paleozoic Crinoid Evolutionary Faunas was already underway by the Katian due to ecological drivers and was not triggered by the Late Ordovician mass extinction.
Throughout our co-produced project, Life, Death, Disability and the Human: Living Life to the Fullest (ESRC 2017– 2020), disabled children and young people living with shortened life expectancies have readily emphasized their human worth, value, and desire for the future. They have done so in disabling cultures that routinely deny them opportunity, access, and expectation. Perhaps not surprisingly, our conversations with disabled young people – and our interpretation of them – became more complex upon the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Suddenly thrown into a moment where all lives became (more) vulnerable – an already-lived reality of many of the young people in our project – it was also a time where cultures of ableism and disablism were made more explicit, and existing inequalities exacerbated. For clarity, we use the terms ‘ableism’ and ‘disablism’ throughout this chapter. Ableism relates to the material, cultural and political privileging of ability, sanity, rationality, physicality and cognition (Braidotti, 2013), while disablism is the resultant oppressive treatment of disabled people (Slater and Liddiard, 2017).
In this chapter we share co-researchers’ own blog posts and writings on their experiences of living through a pandemic. Importantly, young people’s voices explore the (new) ways in which they have made sense of risk and threat, from the virus itself, but also from discriminatory emergency policymaking, compromised access to health resources, and a general lack of governmental support – all of which has affirmed the disposability of disabled and vulnerable lives in contexts of dis/ableism.
“I know full well in this COVID-19 pandemic that my life is not one that will be saved”: managing discourses of human worth
COVID-19 began with early public health messages that only the elderly and those with existing health conditions are most at risk of serious illness or death. Such ontologically violent messages quickly sought to reassure an overwhelmingly anxious public at the expense and distress of some of those considered the most vulnerable. Further, government ministers affirmed herd immunity as an initial key strategy: the concept of allowing publics to be exposed to a virus, in the hope that spreading it among those who are at low risk means that a large part of the population becomes immune.
Our contemporary times are marked by human precarity. This precarity is, however, neither shared, universal nor new. We know that Black, disabled and poor people are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. While it is easy to explain this in terms of the unprecedented impacts of COVID-19, we know that Black, disabled and poor people have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic because of years of systemic racism, toxic capitalism and austere underfunding of health, education and social care. These seemingly disposable lives are routinely devalued. How can researchers engage with people who have been further dehumanized by the pandemic? We offer a response to this question in the context of the Black Lives Matters protests of spring 2020, with reference to the global pandemic that has had disproportionate and inequitable impacts, with a specific consideration of the particularly precarious position of disabled, poor and Black people.
There is always a danger of reading these tumultuous times as marking a new ground zero of human suffering. Here we are, so a popular narrative tells us, enduring one of the lowest points in human history. But some of us have been here before; times where certain human lives are deemed more worthy than others. Spring 2020. CNN news is playing in the background. We are struck by the public spectacle of the Black Lives Matter protests in the States. It jars with our own solitary reality. Like many around the world, We’re staying-at-home, although stuck-at-home feels like a more authentic description. The films rolling before us indicate that the protestors are masked. Social distancing is seemingly being observed. Organized marches wind their ways down major roads in cities across the US. The protestors are clearly putting themselves at risk of transmission. This is not a criticism. It is a commentary on the insecure positions that the activists are prepared to subject themselves to in the service of collectively challenging systemic racism. They seem to be saying: “At risk of the virus? We’ve been at risk of racism for far longer”.
While we are taken by the strength in numbers of the Black Lives Matter activists, the ubiquity of the ‘Fuck Trump’ banners and the righteous fury on their faces, these displays of dissent contrast so markedly with the current isolation of a number of disabled friends of mine.
Interactions with parents are integral in shaping the development of children’s emotional processes. Important aspects of these interactions are overall (mean level) affective experience and affective synchrony (linkages between parent and child affect across time). Respectively, mean-level affect and affective synchrony reflect aspects of the content and structure of dyadic interactions. Most research on parent–child affect during dyadic interactions has focused on infancy and early childhood; adolescence, however, is a key period for both normative emotional development and the emergence of emotional disorders. We examined affect in early to mid-adolescents (N = 55, Mage = 12.27) and their parents using a video-mediated recall task of 10-min conflict-topic discussions. Using multilevel modeling, we found evidence of significant level-2 effects (mean affect) and level-1 effects (affective synchrony) for parents and their adolescents. Level-2 and level-1 associations were differentially moderated by adolescent age and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. More specifically, parent–adolescent synchrony was stronger when adolescents were older and had more internalizing problems. Further, more positive adolescent mean affect was associated with more positive parent affect (and vice versa), but only for dyads with low adolescent externalizing problems. Results underscore the importance of additional research examining parent–child affect in adolescence.