Published online by Cambridge University Press: 12 June 2017
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate postplant crop residue, green and yellow foxtail control, and wheat grain yield after fall application of trifluralin granules in undisturbed small grain stubble. Levels of postplant residue were at least 48% cover (line transect method) and 2750 kg/ha of aboveground dry matter where herbicide granules were left unincorporated or were incorporated with conservation-till methods, including an undercutter, rotary hoe, or undercutter followed by a rotary hoe. Trifluralin at 0.56 kg/ha applied as granules in mid October in untilled stubble and incorporated with conservation-till methods controlled foxtail 81 to 88%, with control appearing slightly lower when granules were not incorporated. The 81 to 88% foxtail control in conservation-till treatments was comparable to control achieved with trifluralin at 0.56 kg/ha applied in mid October on conventionally-tilled soil and incorporated by a field cultivator. Foxtail control improved somewhat as trifluralin rate was increased to 0.84 and 1.12 kg/ha in conservation-till treatments. Slight wheat stand reductions at 1.12 kg/ha of trifluralin did not appear to reduce wheat yield. Fall application of trifluralin granules in these high-residue conditions apparently minimizes herbicide losses by photodecomposition and volatility, thereby facilitating good trifluralin efficacy the following season.