Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5cfd469876-rgz9k Total loading time: 0.284 Render date: 2021-06-23T13:21:09.196Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Identification and Biological Characteristics of Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Accessions in Arkansas

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 March 2017

Mohammad T. Bararpour
Affiliation:
Research Associate, Professor, Professor, Postdoctoral Research Associate, and Professor, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 West Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
Jason K. Norsworthy
Affiliation:
Research Associate, Professor, Professor, Postdoctoral Research Associate, and Professor, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 West Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
Nilda R. Burgos
Affiliation:
Research Associate, Professor, Professor, Postdoctoral Research Associate, and Professor, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 West Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
Nicholas E. Korres
Affiliation:
Research Associate, Professor, Professor, Postdoctoral Research Associate, and Professor, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 West Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
Edward E. Gbur
Affiliation:
Research Associate, Professor, Professor, Postdoctoral Research Associate, and Professor, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 West Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Italian ryegrass is a major weed problem in wheat production worldwide. Field studies were conducted at Fayetteville, AR, to assess morphological characteristics of ryegrass accessions from Arkansas and differences among other Lolium spp.: Italian, rigid, poison, and perennial ryegrass. Plant height, plant growth habit, plant stem color, and node color were recorded every 2 wk until maturity. The number of tillers per plant, spikes per plant, and seeds per plant were recorded at maturity. All ryegrass accessions from Arkansas were identified as Italian ryegrass, which had erect to prostrate growth habit, green to red stem color, green to red nodes, glume (10 mm) shorter than spikelet (19 mm), and medium seed size (5 to 7 mm) with 1 to 3 mm awns. However, significant variability in morphological characteristics was found among Arkansas ryegrass accessions. When Lolium species at the seedling stage (1- to 2-wk-old plants) were compared, poison ryegrass was characterized as having a large main-stem diameter and wide droopy leaves, whereas perennial ryegrass exhibited a short and a very narrow leaf blade. These two can be distinguished from Italian and rigid ryegrass, which have leaf blades wider than perennial ryegrass but narrower than poison ryegrass. Italian and rigid ryegrass are difficult to distinguish at the seedling stage but are distinct at the reproductive stage. At maturity, Italian ryegrass and poison ryegrass seeds are awned, but perennial and rigid ryegrass seeds are awnless. Poison ryegrass awns were at least 4-fold longer than Italian ryegrass awns. Perennial ryegrass flowered 3 wk later than the other species. Poison ryegrass glumes were longer than the spikelets, whereas Italian ryegrass glumes were shorter than the spikelets. Morphological traits indicate that some Italian ryegrass populations are potentially more competitive and more fecund than others.

Type
Weed Biology and Ecology
Copyright
© Weed Science Society of America, 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

Associate Editor: William Vencill, University of Georgia

References

Alcocer-Ruthling, M, Thill, DC, Shafii, B (1992) Differential competitiveness of sulfonylurea resistant and susceptible prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola). Weed Technol 6:303309 Google Scholar
Alshallash, KS, Drennan, DSH (1993) Competition between spring wheat and Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass). Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Brighton, UK, November 13–16, 1993. Weeds 1:113–117Google Scholar
Appleby, AP, Olson, PD, Colbert, DR (1976) Winter wheat yield reduction from interference by Italian ryegrass. Agron J 68:463466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bararpour, MT, Oliver, LR (2007) Comparison of wheat herbicides for control of Arkansas diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass. Ark Crop Prot Assoc 11:1 Google Scholar
Bararpour, MT, Oliver, LR, Norsworthy, JK (2012) Herbicide screening for Arkansas diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass control in wheat. Page 105 in Proceedings of the 2012 Southern Weed Science Society, Volume 65, Weed Management in Agronomic Crops. Charleston, SC: SWSSGoogle Scholar
Benvenuti, M, Steffani, A (1994) Effects of shade on reproduction and some morphological characteristics of Abuthilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium L. and Sorghum halepense L. Pers. Weed Res 34:283288 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blair, B (2001) Effect of soil nutrient heterogeneity on the symmetry of belowground competition. Plant Ecol 156:199203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burgos, NR, Shivrain, VK, Scott, RC, Mauromoustakos, A, Kuk, YI, Sales, MA, Bullington, J (2011) Differential tolerance of weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Arkansas, USA to glyphosate. Crop Prot 30:986994 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campagna, C, Gasparetto, MA, Sattin, M (2001) Situation and management of grass weeds resistant to ACCase inhibitors in Italy. Pages 755–762 in Proceedings of the Brighton Conference on Weeds. Farnham, UK: BCPC Registered OfficeGoogle Scholar
Chauvel, B, Munier-Jolain, NM, Grandgirard, D, Gueritaine, G (2002) Effect of vernalization on the development and growth of Alopecurus myosuroides . Weed Res 42:166175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christoffoleti, PJ, Westra, P, Moore, F (1997) Growth analysis of sulfonylurea-resistant and susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 45:691695 Google Scholar
Crooks, HL, Burton, MG, York, AC, Brownie, C (2005) Vegetative growth and competitiveness of common cocklebur resistant and susceptible to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides. J Cotton Sci 9:229237 Google Scholar
DeFelice, MS, Witt, WW, Barrett, M (1988) Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) growth and development in conventional and no-till corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci 36:609615 Google Scholar
Dickson, JW, Scott, RC, Burgos, NR, Salas, RA, Smith, KL (2011) Confirmation of glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) in Arkansas. Weed Technol 25:674679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dukes, JS, Mooney, HA (1999) Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends Ecol Evol 14:135139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraga, DS, Agostinetto, D, Vargas, L, Nohatto, MA, Thurmer, L, Holz, MT (2013) Adaptive value of ryegrass biotypes with low-level resistance and susceptible to the herbicide fluazifop and competitive ability with the wheat culture. Planta Daninha, Viçosa-MG 31:875885 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gressel, J, Segel, LA (1982) Interrelating factors controlling the rate of appearance of resistance: the outlook for the future. Pages 325348 in LeBaron HM & Gressel J, eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants. New York: Wiley Google Scholar
Harris, JR, Gossett, BJ, Toler, JE (1995) Growth characteristics of selected dinitroaniline-resistant and susceptible goosegrass (Eleusine indica) populations. Weed Technol 9:562567 Google Scholar
Hashem, A, Radosevich, SR, Roush, ML (1998) Effect of proximity factors on competition between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). Weed Sci 46:181190 Google Scholar
Heap, I (2016) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. www.weedscience.org. Accessed: January 21, 2016Google Scholar
Heap, J, Knight, R (1986) The occurrence of herbicide cross-resistance in a population of annual ryegrass Lolium rigidum resistant to diclofop-methyl. Aust J Agric Res 37:149156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holt, JS, Thill, DC (1994) Growth and productivity of resistant plants. Pages 299316 in Powles SB & Holtrum JAM, eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants: Biology and Biochemistry. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Google Scholar
Korres, NE (2005) Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Weed Science: Theory and Digest. Paris: Intercept and Lavoisier. 695 pGoogle Scholar
Korres, NE, Froud-Williams, RJ (2002) Effects of winter wheat cultivars and seed rate on the biological characteristics of naturally occurring weed flora. Weed Res 42:417428 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Korres, NE, Norsworthy, JK, Tehranchian, P, Gitsopoulos, TK, Loka, DA, Oosterhuis, DM, Gealy, DR, Moss, SR, Burgos, NR, Miller, MR, Palhano, M (2016) Cultivars to face climate change effects on crops and weeds: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 36:122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kotoula-Syka, E, Tal, A, Rubin, B (2000) Diclofop-resistant Lolium rigidum from northern Greece with cross-resistance to ACCase inhibitors and multiple resistance to chlorsulfuron. Pest Manag Sci 56:15 3.0.CO;2-M>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lamego, FP, Vidal, RA, Burgos, NR (2011) Competitiveness of ALS inhibitors resistant and susceptible biotypes of greater beggarticks (Bidens subalternans). Planta Daninha, Viçosa-MG 29:457464 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemerle, D, Michael, PW, Sutton, BG (1979) The competitive abilities of wheat and triticale against different densities of Lolium rigidum. Pages 447–450 in Proceedings of 7th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Sydney, Australia, November 26–30, 1979Google Scholar
Liebl, RA, Worsham, AD (1987) Interference of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Sci 35:819823 Google Scholar
Marshall, MW, Al-Khatib, K, Loughlin, T (2001) Gene flow, growth, and competitiveness of imazethapyr-resistant common sunflower. Weed Sci 49:1421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massinga, RA, Al-Khatib, K, Amand, PS, Miller, JF (2005) Relative fitness of imazamox-resistant common sunflower and prairie sunflower. Weed Sci 53:166174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathis, WD, Oliver, LR (1980) Control of six morningglory (Ipomoea) species in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 28:409415 Google Scholar
McClelland, MR, Oliver, LR, Mathis, WD, Frans, RE (1978) Responses of six morningglory (Ipomoea) species to bentazon. Weed Sci 26:459464 Google Scholar
Oliveira, C, Agostinetto, D, Vargas, L, Avila, LA, Tarouco, CP (2014) Does resistance to glyphosate herbicide affect the competitive ability of ryegrass with soybean? Planta Daninha, Vicosa-MG 32:189196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, KW, Mallory-Smith, CA, Ball, DA, Mueller-Warrant, GW (2004) Ecological fitness of acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant and -susceptible downy brome (Bromus tectorum) biotypes. Weed Sci 52:768773 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powles, SB, Holtum, JAM, Matthews, JM, Liljegren, DR (1990) Herbicide cross-resistance in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). Pages 394406 in Managing Resistance to Agrochemicals. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 421. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powles, SB, Matthews, JM (1996) Integrated weed management for the control of herbicide resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Pages 407–414 in Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 25–28, 1996Google Scholar
Powles, SB, Preston, C, Bryan, IB, Jutsum, AR (1997) Herbicide resistance: impact and management. Adv Agron 58:5793 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salas, RA, Burgos, NR, Mauromoustakos, A, Lassiter, RB, Scott, RC, Alcober, EA (2013) Resistance to ACCase and ALS inhibitors in Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum in the United States. J Crop and Weed 9:168183 Google Scholar
Styles, BT (1986) Intraspecific Classification of Wild and Cultivated Plants. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Google Scholar
Terrell, E (1968) A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Lolium (Technical Bulletin No. 1392). Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service, USDA Google Scholar
Thompson, CR, Thill, DC, Shafii, B (1994) Growth and competitiveness of sulfonylurea-resistant and susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia). Weed Sci 42:172179 Google Scholar
Watkinson, AR, White, J (1985) Some life-history consequences of modular construction in plants. Philos Trans R Soc London, Ser. B 313:3151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, TM, Nichols, RL (2012) Changes in the prevalence of weed species in the major agronomic crops of the Southern United States: 1994/1995 to 2008/2009. Weed Sci 60:145157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiederholt, RJ, Stoltenberg, DE (1996) Absence of differential fitness between giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) accessions resistant and susceptible to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitors. Weed Sci 44:1824 Google Scholar
Yatskievych, G (1999) 76. Lolium L. (ryegrass). Pages 841–845 in Flora of Missouri, Volume 1. Jefferson City, MO: Department of Conservation, in cooperation with the Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar

A correction has been issued for this article:

8
Cited by

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Identification and Biological Characteristics of Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Accessions in Arkansas
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Identification and Biological Characteristics of Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Accessions in Arkansas
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Identification and Biological Characteristics of Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Accessions in Arkansas
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *