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Effect of tillage on timing of Setaria spp. emergence and growth

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 June 2017

Lizabeth A. B. Stahl
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
Ronald L. Wyse
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
Douglas D. Buhler
Affiliation:
National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2150 Pammel Drive, Ames, IA 50011
Jeffrey L. Gunsolus
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108

Abstract

Weed management can be a significant challenge in cropping systems, partly because the effects of tillage systems on weed seedbank and seedling population dynamics are not well understood. Field research was conducted from 1994 to 1996 in established tillage plots consisting of moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP), and no-tillage (NT). The objectives were to determine the effects of long-term tillage systems on the timing and duration of Setaria spp. emergence and percentage cumulative emergence from the soil seedbank and to investigate the effect of tillage on Setaria spp. density and seed production following glyphosate application at Setaria spp. heights of 5, 10, and 15 cm. NT contained a greater number of Setaria spp. seed in the 0- to 1-, 1- to 3-, and 3- to 6-cm depths than MP or CP systems. There was little difference between the three tillage systems at depths greater than 6 cm. Setaria spp. emergence was greater in NT than in MP or CP in 1994 and 1996 and greater than in MP in 1995. There was a substantial increase in Setaria spp. emergence in NT between 3 and 4 weeks after planting (WAP) in 1994 and between 5 and 6 WAP in 1995 and 1996. Significant emergence did not occur past 5 to 6 WAP in 1994 and 1995 but continued over a longer period of time in 1996. Setaria spp. plants consistently reached targeted herbicide application heights 4 to 9 d earlier in NT than in CP and MP. In 1994, final Setaria spp. density was greater in NT compared to CP and MP at the 5- and 10-cm herbicide application timings. When glyphosate was applied to 15-cm-tall Setaria, very few weeds were present following application across all tillage systems. In 1995, NT resulted in greater Setaria spp. density than MP or CP across all application timings. There was no difference in final Setaria spp. density between MP and CP across all glyphosate timings in 1994 and 1995. Seed production was negligible in MP and CP, regardless of glyphosate timing. In NT, however, significant seed production occurred, especially with early application. Results indicate that the effectiveness of nonresidual herbicides for Setaria faberi Herrm. control is influenced by tillage system and the timing of application.

Type
Weed Biology and Ecology
Copyright
Copyright © 1999 by the Weed Science Society of America 

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