Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-gl8zf Total loading time: 0.634 Render date: 2022-12-08T03:29:03.362Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Constant light affects retinal dopamine levels and blocks deprivation myopia but not lens-induced refractive errors in chickens

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 June 2009

Marieluise Bartmann
Affiliation:
Department of Pathophysiology and Neurophthalmology, Division of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Ob dem Himmelreich 9, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Frank Schaeffel
Affiliation:
Department of Pathophysiology and Neurophthalmology, Division of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Ob dem Himmelreich 9, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Gabi Hagel
Affiliation:
Department of Pathophysiology and Neurophthalmology, Division of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Ob dem Himmelreich 9, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
Eberhart Zrenner
Affiliation:
Department of Pathophysiology and Neurophthalmology, Division of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Ob dem Himmelreich 9, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany

Abstract

Chickens were raised with either translucent occluders or lenses, both under normal light cycles (12–h light/12–h dark) and in constant light (CL). Under normal light cycles, eyes with occluders became very myopic, and eyes with lenses became either relatively hyperopic (positive lenses) or myopic (negative lenses). After the treatment, retinal dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and serotonin levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-EC). A significant drop in daytime retinal DOPAC (-20%) was observed after 1 week of deprivation, and in both DOPAC (-40%) and DA (-30%) after 2 weeks of deprivation. No changes in retinal serotonin levels were found. Retinal DA or DOPAC content remained unchanged after 2 or 4 days of lens wearing even though the lenses had already exerted their maximal effect on axial eye growth. When the chickens were raised in CL, development of deprivation myopia was reduced (8 days CL) or entirely blocked (13 days CL). Lens-induced changes in eye growth were not different after either 6 or 11 days in CL, compared to animals raised in a normal light cycle. Thirteen days of CL resulted in a dramatic reduction of DA and DOPAC levels, but serotonin levels were also lowered. The results suggest that lens-induced changes in refraction may not be dependent on dopaminergic pathways whereas deprivation myopia requires normal diurnal DA rhythms to develop.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bartmann, M., Bubser, B. & Schaeffel, F. (1992). Inter-individual variability in retinal dopamine levels and deprivation myopia in chickens. In Rhythmogenesis in Neurons and Networks, ed., Elsner, N. & Richter, D.W., pp. 400. New York: Thieme Stuttgart.Google Scholar
Cremieux, J., Orban, G.A., Duysens, J., Amblard, B. & Kennedy, H. (1989). Experimental myopia in cats reared in stroboscopic illumination. Vision Research 29, 10331036.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glickstein, M. & Millodot, M. (1970). Retinoscopy and eye size. Science 192, 605606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottlieb, M.D., Fugate-Wentzek, L.A. & Wallman, J. (1987). Different visual deprivations produce different ametropias and different eye shapes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 28, 12251235.Google ScholarPubMed
Hodos, W. & Kuenzel, W.J. (1984). Retinal-image degradation produces ocular enlargement in chicks. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 25, 652659.Google ScholarPubMed
Irving, E.L., Sivak, G. & Callender, M.G. (1992). Refractive plasticity of the developing chick eye. Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics 12, 448456.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iuvone, P.M., Galli, C.L., GARRISON-Gunkd, C.K. & Neff, N.H. (1978). Light stimulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine synthesis in retinal amacrine neurons. Science 202, 901902.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iuvone, P.M., Tigges, M., Fernandez, A. & Tigges, J (1989). Dopamine synthesis and metabolism in rhesus monkey retina: Development, aging, and the effect of monocular visual deprivation. Visual Neuroscience 2, 465471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iuvone, P.M., Tigges, M., Stone, R.A., Lambert, S. & Laties, A.M. (1991). Effects of apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist, on ocular refraction and axial elongation in a primate model of myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 32, 16741677.Google Scholar
Jonsson, G. (1983). Chemical lesioning techniques: Monoamine neurotoxins. In Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy Vol. I, ed. BjÖRklund, A. & HÖKfelt, T., pp. 463497. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, I.C., Jones, M.W. & Philipson, O.T. (1986). A semiautomated analysis method for catecholamines, indoleamines, and some prominent metabolites in microdissected regions of the nervous system: An isocratic HPLC technique employing coulometric detection and minimal sample preparation. Journal of Neurochemistry 46, 18651876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lauber, J.K. (1987). Review: Light-induced avian glaucoma as an animal model for human primary glaucoma. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology 3, 77100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lauber, J.K. & Oishi, T. (1987). Lid suture myopia in chicks. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 28, 18511858.Google ScholarPubMed
Li, T., Troilo, D., Glasser, A. & Howland, H.C. (1992 a). Constant light produces severe corneal flattening and hyperopia in chickens. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 33, 1188.Google Scholar
Li, X.X., Schaeffel, F., Kohler, K. & Zrenner, E. (1992 b). Dose-dependent effect of 6–hydroxy dopamine on deprivation myopia, electroretinograms, and dopaminergic amacrine cells in chickens. Visual Neuroscience 9, 483492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.R., Farr, L.F. & Randall, R.S. (1965). Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193, 265275.Google Scholar
Oishi, T., Lauber, J.K. & Vried, J. (1987). Experimental myopia and glaucoma in chicks. Zoological Science 4, 455464.Google Scholar
Parkinson, D. & Rando, R.R. (1983). Effects of light on dopamine metabolism in the chick retina. Journal of Neurochemistry 40, 3946.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pickett-Settner, R.L., Sivak, J.G. & Pasternak, J.J. (1988). Experimentally induced myopia in chicks: Morphometric and biochemical analysis during the first 14 days after hatching. Vision Research 28, 323328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rohrer, B., Spira, A.W., Stell, W.K. & Wagner, H.-J. (1992 a). The site of action of dopamine in form-deprivation myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 33, 1052.Google Scholar
Rohrer, B., Schaeffel, F. & Zrenner, E. (1992 b). Longitudinal chromatic aberration and emmetropization: Results from the chicken eye. Journal of Physiology 449, 363376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schaeffel, F. & Howland, H.C. (1991). Properties of the feedback loops controlling eye growth and refractive state in the chicken. Vision Research 31, 717734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaeffel, F., Howland, H., Weiss, S. & Zrenner, E. (1993). Measurement of the dynamics of accommodation by automated real time photorefraction. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 34, 2968.Google Scholar
Schaeffel, F., Glasser, A. & Howland, H.C. (1988). Accommodation, refractive error, and eye growth in chickens. Vision Research 28, 639657.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schaeffel, F., Hagel, G., Kohler, K. & Zrenner, E. (1992). Deprivation myopia and ametropia induced by spectacle lenses result from two different mechanisms in chicks. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 33, 1052.Google Scholar
Siuciak, J.A., Gamache, P.H. & Dubocovich, M.L. (1992). Monoamines and their precursors and metabolites in the chicken brain, pineal, and retina: Regional distribution and day/night variations. Journal of Neurochemistry 58, 722729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stone, R.A., Lin, T., Laties, A.M. & Iuvone, P.M. (1989). Retinal dopamine and form-deprivation myopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. 86, 704706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troilo, D., Gottlieb, M.D. & Wallman, J. (1987). Visual deprivation causes myopia in chicks with optic nerve section. Current Eye Research 6, 993999.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vingrys, A.J., Squires, M.A., Napper, G.A., Barrington, M., Vessey, G.A. & Brennan, N.A. (1991). Prevention of form-deprivation myopia in post-hatch chicks. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 32, 2618.Google Scholar
Wallman, J. & Adams, J.I. (1987). Developmental aspects of experimental myopia in chicks: Susceptibility, recovery, and relation to emmetropization. Vision Research 27, 11391163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wallman, J., Turkel, J. & Trachtman, J. (1978). Extreme myopia produced by modest changes in early visual experience. Science 201, 12491251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wallman, J., Xu, A., Wildsoet, C., Krebs, W., Gottlieb, M., Marran, L. & Nickla, D. (1992). Moving the retina: A third mechanism of focusing the eye. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 33, 1053.Google Scholar
Weiss, S. & Schaeffel, F. (1993). Diurnal rhythms in eye growth in chickens and their relation to retinal dopamine levels. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 172, 263270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
76
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Constant light affects retinal dopamine levels and blocks deprivation myopia but not lens-induced refractive errors in chickens
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Constant light affects retinal dopamine levels and blocks deprivation myopia but not lens-induced refractive errors in chickens
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Constant light affects retinal dopamine levels and blocks deprivation myopia but not lens-induced refractive errors in chickens
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *