Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-z5d2w Total loading time: 0.402 Render date: 2021-11-28T00:44:41.550Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

A PARASITE FOR SORE EYES: REREADING INFECTION METAPHORS IN BRAM STOKER'S DRACULA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 November 2016

Ross G. Forman*
Affiliation:
University of Warwick

Extract

Since the late 1980s and Elaine Showalter's influential Sexual Anarchy, it has become axiomatic to read Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula as a text that responds to anxieties of degeneration through metaphors of infection (184). Given the obvious sexual nature of the threat represented by the vampire, critics have focused on syphilis as the text's most immediate disease of reference. They have identified many important correspondences between Stoker's text and racialized fears of decline through blood and bloodlines, drawing connections between Stoker's own possible demise from syphilis, the history of contagious diseases legislation, and the scandal surrounding Ibsen's Ghosts (1882). But, as Martin Willis has noted, there continues to be “a need to reassess Dracula within the contexts of disease theories that allows for a more historically rigorous analysis of the novel” (302).

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Arata, Stephen. “The Occidental Tourist: Stoker and Reverse Colonization.” Fictions of Loss in the Victorian Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 107–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belford, Barbara. Bram Stoker: A Biography of the Author of Dracula. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1996.Google Scholar
Bird, Isabella. The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither. London: John Murray, 1883.Google Scholar
Braddon, Mary Elizabeth. “Good Lady Ducayne.” Strand Magazine 11 (Feb. 1896): 184–99.Google Scholar
British Farmer's Magazine 2. London: Rogerson and Tuxford, 1866. British Library. L/Mil/10/102, folio 11.Google Scholar
Cantlie, James. Degeneration among Londoners. London: Field and Tuer, 1885.Google Scholar
Cowan, Frank. Curious Facts in the History of Insects. Philadelphia: J. Lippincott, 1865.Google Scholar
Craft, Christopher. Another Kind of Love: Male Homosexual Desire in English Discourse, 1850–1920. Berkeley: U of California P, 1994.Google Scholar
Davidson, Andrew. “Malarial Diseases.” Hygiene and Diseases of Warm Climates. Ed. Davidson, Andrew. Edinburgh and London: Young J. Pentland, 1893.Google Scholar
Dilke, Charles Wentworth. Greater Britain: A Record of Travel in English-Speaking Countries. With Additional Chapters on English Influence in Japan and China and on Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements. 8th ed. London: Macmillan, 1885.Google Scholar
Dolly [Leonard D'Oliver]. The Vampire Nemesis and Other Weird Stories of the China Coast. Bristol: J. W. Arrowsmith, 1905.Google Scholar
Edmond, Rod. Leprosy and Empire: A Medical and Cultural History. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edmond, Rod. Representing the South Pacific: Colonial Discourse from Cook to Gauguin. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005.Google Scholar
Gilbert, Pamela K. Cholera and Nation: Doctoring the Social Body in Victorian England. Albany: State U of New York P, 2008.Google Scholar
Glendening, John. “‘What “Modernity” Cannot Kill’: Evolution and Primitivism in Stoker's Dracula .” The Evolutionary Imagination in Late-Victorian Novels: An Entangled Bank. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007. 107–36.Google Scholar
Hughes, William. Beyond Dracula: Bram Stoker's Fiction and Its Cultural Context. Basingstoke, Hants: Macmillan, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, William. Bram Stoker: Dracula. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.Google Scholar
King, A. F.Insects and Disease: Mosquitoes and Malaria.” Popular Science Monthly 23 (1883): 644–63. Internet Archive. Web. 8 June 2015.Google Scholar
Klebs, Edwin, and Tommasi-Crudeli, Corrado. On the Nature of Malaria. Trans. and ed. Drummond, Edward. Vol. 121 of Selected Monographs. London: The New Sydenham Society, 1888.Google Scholar
Laveran, Alphonse. Paludism. Trans. Martin, J. W.. London: The New Sydenham Society, 1893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leatherdale, Clive. The Origins of Dracula: The Background to Bram Stoker's Gothic Masterpiece. London: William Kimber, 1987.Google Scholar
Mannaberg, Julius. The Malarial Parasites: A Description Based upon Observations Made by the Authors and by Other Observers. Trans. Felkin, R. W.. Vol. 2 of Two Monographs on Malaria and the Parasites of Malarial Fevers. London: New Sydenham Society, 1894.Google Scholar
Manson, Patrick. “The Geographical Distribution, Pathological Relations, and Life History of Filaria hominis diurna and of Filaria sanguinis hominis perstans, in Connexion with Preventative Medicine.” Transactions of the Seventh International Congress of Hygiene and Demography. London, August 10th-17th, 1891. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1892. 1: 7897.Google Scholar
Manson, Patrick. “A Lecture on Benign and Pernicious Malarial Fevers.” British Medical Journal 1.1831 (1 Feb. 1896): 257–60. Bmj.com Archive. Web. 8 June 2015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manson, Patrick. “On the Nature and Significance of the Crescentic and Flagellated Bodies in Malarial Blood.” British Medical Journal 2.1771 (8 Dec. 1894): 1306–08. Bmj.com Archive. Web. 8 June 2015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manson, Patrick. Tropical Diseases: A Manual of the Diseases of Warm Climates. London: Cassell, 1898.Google Scholar
Marsh, Richard [Richard Bernard Heldmann]. The Beetle. 1897. Ed. Wolfreys, Julian. Peterborough: Broadview, 2004.Google Scholar
Maryatt, Florence. The Blood of a Vampire. 1897. Ed. Hammack, Brenda. Kansas City: Valancourt, 2009.Google Scholar
Mighall, Robert. “‘A Pestilence which walketh in darkness’: Diagnosing the Victorian Vampire.” Spectral Readings: Towards a Gothic Geography. Ed. Byron, Glennis and Punter, David. Basingstoke, Hants: Macmillan, 1999. 108–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moretti, Franco. Signs Taken for Wonders: Essays in the Sociology of Literary Forms. Trans. Fischer, Susan, Forgacs, David and Miller, David. London: Verso, 1983, 1988.Google Scholar
Murray, Paul. From the Shadow of Dracula: A Life of Bram Stoker. London: Jonathan Cape, 2004.Google Scholar
Obit., , William Thornley Stoker. British Medical Journa l 1.2685 (15 June 1912): 1399. Bmj.com Archive. Web. 8 June 2015.Google Scholar
Otis, Laura. “Arthur Conan Doyle: An Imperial Immune System.” Membranes: Metaphors of Invasion in Nineteenth-century Literature, Science, and Politics. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1999. 90118.Google Scholar
Pettigrew, Thomas Joseph. On Superstitions Connected with the History and Practice of Medicine and Surgery. London: John Churchill, 1844.Google Scholar
Roberts, Frederick T. A Handbook of the Theory and Practice of Medicine. 8th ed. London: H. K. Lewis, 1890.Google Scholar
Roll of the Indian Medical Service 1615–1930 . Ed. Crawford, D. G.. London: Thacker, 1930.Google Scholar
Ross, Ronald. Instructions for the Prevention of Malarial Fever for the Use of Residents in Malarious Places. 2nd ed. Liverpool: UP of Liverpool, 1900. Liverpool School of Tropical Diseases, Memoir 1.Google Scholar
Ross, Ronald. Malaria and Mosquitoes: Abstract of a Discourse Delivered before the Royal Institution of Great Britain on March 2nd 1900. London: George Philip & Son, 1900.Google Scholar
Ross, Ronald. “Observations of Malaria Parasites.” British Medical Journal 1.1831 (1 Feb. 1896): 260–61. Bmj.com Archive. Web. 8 June 2015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, Ronald. “On Some Peculiar Pigmented Cells Found in Two Mosquitoes Fed on Malarial Blood.” British Medical Journal 2.1929 (18 Dec. 1897): 1786–88. Bmj.com Archive. Web. 4 Nov. 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sambon, Luigi. “Remarks on the Possibility of the Acclimatisation of Europeans in Tropical Regions.” British Medical Journal 1.1880 (9 Jan. 1897): 6166. Bmj.com Archive. Web. 7 Mar. 2016.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Showalter, Elaine. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Virago, 1990.Google Scholar
Smith, Theobald, and Kilborne, F. L.. Investigations into the Nature, Causation, and Prevention of Texas or Southern Cattle Fever. Bulletin No. 1, US Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. 1897. Ed. Hindle, Maurice. London: Penguin, 1993.Google Scholar
Stoker, Bram. Dracula . A Glimpse of America: A Lecture Given at the London Institution, 28th December 1885, by Bram Stoker, M.A.. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1886.Google Scholar
Stoker, George. The Oxygen Treatment for Wounds, Ulcers, Burns, Scalds, Lupus, and Diseases of the Nose, Eye, and Ear. London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1897.Google Scholar
Stoker, George. With “The Unspeakables;” or, Two Years’ Campaigning in European and Asiatic Turkey. London: Chapman & Hall, 1878.Google ScholarPubMed
Symonds, John Addington. A Problem in Modern Ethics, Being an Inquiry into the Phenomenon of Sexual Inversion Addressed Especially to Medical Psychologists and Jurists. London: N.p., 1896.Google Scholar
Thom's Irish Who's Who : A Biographical Book of Reference of Prominent Men and Women in Irish Life at Home and Abroad. Dublin: Alexander Thom, 1923.Google Scholar
Thomson, Spencer, and Steele, J. C.. A Dictionary of Domestic Medicine and Household Surgery. 34th ed. Ed. Westland, Albert and Reid, George. London: Charles Griffith, 1899.Google Scholar
Tratner, Michael. Modernism and Mass Politics: Joyce, Woolf, Eliot, Yeats. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1995.Google Scholar
“The Tsetse Fly.” British Medical Journal 1.1846 (16 May 1896): 1219–20. Bmj.com Archive. Web. 8 June 2015.Google Scholar
Willburn, Sarah. Possessed Victorians: Extra Spheres in Nineteenth-century Mystical Writings. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.Google Scholar
Willis, Martin. “‘The Invisible Giant,’ Dracula and Disease.” Studies in the Novel 39.3 (Fall 2007): 301–25.Google Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A PARASITE FOR SORE EYES: REREADING INFECTION METAPHORS IN BRAM STOKER'S DRACULA
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

A PARASITE FOR SORE EYES: REREADING INFECTION METAPHORS IN BRAM STOKER'S DRACULA
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

A PARASITE FOR SORE EYES: REREADING INFECTION METAPHORS IN BRAM STOKER'S DRACULA
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *