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BONAVENTURE PONDERING WITH AUGUSTINE: DE CIVITATE DEI 11.2 AND THE MAKING OF THE ITINERARIUM MENTIS IN DEUM

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 November 2020

MARIA THEOTOKOS ADAMS
Affiliation:
The Catholic University of America
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

This article presents Augustine's De civitate Dei 11.2 as a valuable but overlooked source of influence on Bonaventure's making of the Itinerarium mentis in Deum. First, a detailed exposition analyzes the structure and content of Augustine's compact mystical treatise on the “ascent of the mind to God” located at the turning points of his magnum opus. Second, a study of the prologue of the Itinerarium mentis in Deum demonstrates how this passage informed Bonaventure's conception of his unique project. Third, the article offers support for his explicit reception of De civitate Dei — and Book 11 in particular — through an annotated summary of Bonaventure's references to the work in his earlier and later written corpus. Initial findings present how Anonymi Contra philosophos appears to have functioned as a privileged point for reception of De civitate Dei 11.2 among the early Franciscans scholastics from Alexander of Hales to Bonaventure and Matthew of Aquasparta. The present research also offers a fresh case study through which to modify the central claims of Lydia Schumacher's scholarship on the Bonaventurean use of Augustine and the nature of early Franciscan theology. The closing section explores some of the possible influences shaping this approach. Finally, this article invites medievalists to expand their expectations of how De civitate Dei 11 may have communicated Augustine's thought through diverse forms of Franciscan reception and wide-ranging applications beyond the academy.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Fordham University 2020

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Footnotes

I am grateful to Mark J. Clark, Timothy Noone, and Joshua Benson for their advice and support during the early stages of this study. I also wish to acknowledge Robert S. Miola and my CUA graduate colleagues Meghan Duke and Daniel Bennett for reading and commenting on my later drafts. I thank the two anonymous readers from Traditio for their precise and constructive criticism, and my sisters at the International Juniorate House of Studies in Bagnoregio for their fidelity to study and prayer.

References

1 IMD, Prologus 2 (179–80): “contigit ut nutu divino circa Beati ipsius transitum, anno trigesimo tertio ad montem Alvernae tanquam ad locum quietum amore quaerendi pacem spiritus declinarem, ibique existens, dum mente tractarem aliquas mentales ascensiones in Deum, inter alia occurit illud miraclum, quod in praedicto loco contigit ipsi beato Francisco.” trans. Philotheus Boehner, O.F.M., in Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium Mentis in Deum (Saint Bonaventure, NY, 1956), 54. Unless otherwise noted, all English translations of the IMD are from this edition.

2 IMD Prologus 2, 3, and 5 (179–181); and IMD 7.1 (211–12).

3 IMD Prologus 5 (181).

4 Schlosser, Marianne, “Bonaventure Life and Works,” in A Companion to Bonaventure, ed. Hammond, Jay M., Hellmann, J. A. Wayne, and Goff, Jared (Leiden, 2014), 9–59, at 11–12Google Scholar.

5 Cresta, Gerald, “From Dionysius’ thearchia to Bonaventure's hierarchia: Assimilation and Evolution of the Concept,” Studia Patristica 69 (2013): 325–32Google Scholar; Overton, Troy, “Saint Bonaventure's Illumination Theory of Knowledge: The Reconciliation of Aristotle, Pseudo-Dionysius and Augustine,” Miscellanea Francescana 88 (1998): 108–21Google Scholar; and Hankey, W. J., “Dionysius Becomes an Augustinian: Bonaventure's Itinerarium VI,” Studia Patristica 29 (1997): 252–59Google Scholar.

6 Coulter, Dale M., “The Victorine Sub-Structure of Bonaventure's Thought,” Franciscan Studies 70 (2012): 399410CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Brown, Stephen F., “Reflections on the Structural Sources of Bonaventure's Itinerarium Mentis in Deum,” in Medieval Philosophy and Modern Times, ed. Holmström-Hintikka, Ghita (Dordrecht, 2000), 116Google Scholar.

7 Brown, “Reflections on the Structural Sources,” 6.

8 DCD 11.2 (48.322).

9 Guy, Jean-Claude SJ, Unité et structure logique de la «Cité de Dieu» de saint Augustin (Paris, 1961), 8485Google Scholar.

10 For the complete Latin text and English translation of DCD 11.2, see Appendix I.

11 DCD 5.11 (47.141–2); 11.18 (48.337); 15.25 (48.493); and 19.20 (48.687). Additionally, see DCD 18.32 (48.623–626), which shares in the common poetic genre, but is much longer than the others.

12 Van Fleteren, Frederick, “The Ascent of the Soul in the Augustinian Tradition,” in Paradigms in Medieval Thought: Applications in Medieval Disciplines, ed. van Deusen, Nancy and Ford, Alvin E. (New York, 1990), 93–110, at 93, 101, 103, and 109Google Scholar. Among these, De musica and De vera religione are later cited in the Itinerarium by name. In Chapter 2.10 Bonaventure explicitly recommends Book 6 of De musica (before including an extensive direct quote) as well as De vera religione, which he again names in IMD 3.3.

13 Matthews, Gareth, “Knowledge and Illumination,” in The Cambridge Companion to Augustine, ed. Stump, Eleanor and Kretzmann, Norman (Cambridge, 2001), 171–185, at 183–84Google Scholar.

14 For a summary of the structure of DCD 11.2, see Appendix II.

15 DCD 11.2, 1 (48.322): “magnum est et admodum rarum”; trans. William Babcock, The City of God (De civitate Dei) XI-XXII, in The Works of Saint Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century, ed. Boniface Ramsey (Hyde Park, NY, 2013), I/7:2. Unless otherwise noted, all English translations of the DCD are from this edition.

16 Augustine, Concerning the City of God against the Pagans, trans. Henry Bettenson (New York, 1972), 430.

17 Saint Augustine: The City of God, Books VIII–XVI, trans. Gerald G. Walsh, SJ, and Grace Monahan, O.S.U. (New York, 1952), 188.

18 DCD 11.2, 1 (48.322): “magnum est et admodum rarum”; and DCD 11.2, 25 (48.322): “fuerat inbuenda atque purganda.”

19 DCD 11.2, 1–2 (48.322): “universam creaturam corpoream et incorpoream.”

20 DCD 11.2, 3 (48.322): “intentione mentis excedere.”

21 DCD 11.2, 3–4 (48.322): “atque ad incommutabilem dei substantiam pervenire.”

22 DCD 11.2, 4–5 (48.322): “et illic discere ex ipso, quod cunctam naturam, quae non est quod ipse, non fecit nisi ipse.”

23 DCD 11.2, 5–7 (48.322): “sic enim deus cum homine non per aliquam creaturam loquitur corporalem.”

24 DCD 11.2, 7–10 (48.322): “corporalibus instrepens auribus, ut inter sonantem et audientem aeria spatia verberentur, neque per eius modi spiritalem, quae corporum similitudinibus figuratur, sicut in somnis vel quo alio tali modo.”

25 DCD 11.2, 10–13 (48.322).

26 DCD 11.2, 13–14 (48.322) : “sed loquitur ipsa veritate si quis sit idoneus ad audiendum mente, non corpore.” Augustine also describes the direct communication of truth itself in De diuersis quaestionibus lxxxiii, q. 51, 2, 4; PL 40.11. Truth speaking directly to the height of the mind is also treated in the same work in question 54.

27 Augustine, Confessiones libri XII, ed. L. Verheijen, CCL 27 (Turnhout, 1981), 7.17.23 (107); and 9.10.23-26 (147–148).

28 Augustine, De Genesi ad litteram libri duodecim 12.27, ed. J. Zycha, CSEL 28/3.1 (Vienna, 1894), 420–22, a discussion of the types of mystical experiences of Moses. See Wright, Robert E., “Mysticism,” in Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia, ed. Fitzgerald, Allan D., O.S.A. (Grand Rapids, MI, 1999), 579Google Scholar.

29 DCD 11.2, 14–16 (48.322): “ad illud enim hominis ita loquitur, quod in homine ceteris, quibus homo constat, est melius, et quo ipse deus solus est melior.”

30 DCD 11.2, 17–18 (48.322): “cum enim homo rectissime intellegatur vel, si hoc non potest, saltem credatur factus ad imaginem dei.”

31 DCD 11.2, 20–24 (48.322): “sed quia ipsa mens, cui ratio et intellegentia naturaliter inest, vitiis quibusdam tenebrosis et veteribus invalida est, non solum ad inhaerendum fruendo, verum etiam ad perferendum incommutabile lumen.”

32 DCD 11.2, 24–26 (48.322): “donec de die in diem renovata atque sanata fiat tantae felicitatis capax, fide primum fuerat inbuenda atque purganda.”

33 DCD 11.2, 26–29 (48.322): “in qua ut fidentius ambularet ad veritatem, ipsa veritas, deus dei filius, homine adsumpto, non deo consumpto, eandem constituit et fundavit fidem, ut ad hominis deum iter esset homini per hominem deum.”

34 DCD 11.2, 34–36 (48.322): “sola est autem adversus omnes errores via munitissima, ut idem ipse sit deus et homo; quo itur deus, qua itur homo.”

35 IMD 2 (179): “ad montem Alvernae tanquam ad locum quietum amore quaerendi pacem spiritus declinarem ibi que existens dum mente tractarem aliquas mentales ascensiones in deum.”

36 Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium Mentis in Deum, trans. Philotheus Boehner, O.F.M. (Saint Bonaventure, NY, 1956), 31.

37 Bonaventure: The Soul's Journey into God, The Tree of Life, and the Life of St. Francis, trans. Ewert Cousins (Mahwah, NJ, 1978), 54.

38 The Mind's Road to God, trans. George Boas (New York, 1953), 3.

39 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “inter alia occurrit illud miraculum quod in praedicto loco contingit ipsi beato Francisco de visione scilicet seraph alati ad instar crucifixi. In cuius consideratione statim visum est mihi quod visio illa praetenderet ipsius patris suspensionem in contemplando et viam per quam pervenitur ad eam.”

40 Cf. Lambert, Malcom D., Franciscan Poverty: The Doctrine of Absolute Poverty of Christ and the Apostles in the Franciscan Order, 1210–1323 (St. Bonaventure, NY, 1998)Google Scholar; Moorman, John, A History of the Franciscan Order: From Its Origins to the Year 1517, rev. ed. (Chicago, 1988)Google Scholar; Bert Roest, A History of Franciscan Education (c. 1210–1517), Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 11 (Leiden, 2000); and Şenocak, Neslihan, The Poor and the Perfect: The Rise of Learning in the Franciscan Order 1209–1310 (Ithaca, 2011)Google Scholar.

41 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Via autem non est nisi per ardentissimum amorem crucifixi qui adeo Paulum ad tertium caelum raptum transformavit in Christum ut diceret: Christo confixus sum cruci vivo autem iam non ego.”

42 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Nam per senas alas illas recte intelligi possunt sex illuminationum suspensiones quibus anima quasi quibusdam gradibus vel itineribus disponitur ut transeat ad pacem per ecstaticos excessus sapientiae christianae.”

43 Brown, “Reflections on the Structural Sources” (n. 6 above), 2–3.

44 See Schmitt, Jean-Claude, “Les images classificatrices,” Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes, 147 (1989): 311–41, at 317–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Gill, Meredith J., Angels and the Order of Heaven in Medieval and Renaissance Italy (Cambridge, 2014), 18, 25, 61 n. 47, 244 n. 71, and 245Google Scholar.

45 IMD Prologus 2 (180): “aliquas mentales ascensiones in Deum.”

46 IMD Prologus 1 (179): “det illuminatos oculos (Eph. 1:17) mentis nostrae ad dirigendos pedes nostros in viam pacis (Luke 1:79) illius, quae exsuperat omnem sensum” (Phil. 4:7; cf. John 14:27).

47 Eph. 1:17.

48 DCD 11.2, 13–14 (48.322): “sed loquitur ipsa veritate si quis sit idoneus ad audiendum mente, non corpore.”

49 IMD 3.4 (197) and 5.1 (203–204); cf. Augustine, De diversis quaestionibus octoginta tribus Q. 51.2, 46–50, ed. A. Mutzenbecher, CCL 44A (Turnhout, 1975), 80: “Quare cum homo possit particeps esse sapientiae secundum interiorem hominem, secundum ipsum ita est ad imaginem, ut nulla natura interposita formetur, et ideo nihil sit deo coniuntius. Et sapit enim et vivit et est, qua creatura nihil est melius.”

50 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Qui etiam adeo mentem Francisci absorbuit quod mens in carne patuit dum sacratissima passionis stigmata in corpore suo ante mortem per biennium deportavit.”

51 Cf. Augustine, De patientia 10.8, lines 15–16, ed. J. Zycha, CSEL 41 (Vienna, 1900), 671: “et pietate inmobili subdideruntdeo mentem, cum paterentur in carne . . .”

52 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Via autem non est nisi per ardentissimum amorem crucifixi qui adeo Paulum ad tertium caelum raptum transformavit in Christum ut diceret: Christo confixus sum cruci vivo autem iam non ego. Vivit vero in me Christus. Qui etiam adeo mentem Francisci absorbuit quod mens in carne patuit dum sacratissima passionis stigmata in corpore suo ante mortem per biennium deportavit.

53 Bonaventure, Sabbato sancto: Sermo 1 (9.268): “Et si homo non velit ad istam perfectionem pervenire, magnum tamen est, quod lex christiana habet tales.” trans. Brown, “Reflections on the Structural Sources” (n. 6 above), 6.

54 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Non enim dispositus est aliquo modo ad contemplationes divinas quae ad mentales ducunt excessus nisi cum Daniele sit vir desideriorum.”

55 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Desideria autem in nobis inflammantur dupliciter scilicet per clamorem orationis quae rugire facit a gemitu cordis et per fulgorem speculationis qua mens ad radios lucis directissime et intensissime se convertit.”

56 IMD 1.2 (182–83): “Oportet nos intrare ad mentem nostram quae est imago dei aeviterna spiritualis et intra nos et hoc est ingredi in veritate dei.”

57 IMD 1.6 (184): “Hos gradus in nobis habemus plantatos per naturam deformatos per culpam reformatos per gratiam purgandos per iustitiam exercendos per scientiam perficiendos per sapientiam.”

58 DCD 11.2, 21–22 (48.322): “sed quia ipsa mens, cui ratio et intellegentia naturaliter inest, vitiis quibusdam tenebrosis et veteribus invalida est.”

59 DCD 11.2, 24–26 (48.322): “donec de die in diem renouata atque sanata fiat tantae felicitatis capax, fide primum fuerat inbuenda atque purganda.”

60 IMD 1.3 (183).

61 IMD 1.3 (183): “Haec est triplex illuminatio unius diei et prima est sicut vespera, secunda sicut mane, tertia sicut meridies. Haec respicit triplicem rerum existentiam scilicet in materia in intelligentia et in arte aeterna secundum quam dictum est: fiat fecit et factum est.”

62 DCD 11.7 (48.327): “quoniam scientia creaturae in comparatione scientiae creatoris quodam modo vesperascit, itemque lucescit et mane fit, cum et ipsa refertur ad laudem dilectionemque creatoris; nec in noctem vergitur, ubi non creator creaturae dilectione relinquitur.”

63 IMD 1.3–4 (183): “Haec etiam respicit triplicem substantiam in Christo qui est scala nostra scilicet corporalem spiritualem et divinam. Secundum hunc triplicem progressum mens nostra tres habet aspectus principales. Unus est ad corporalia exteriora secundum quem vocatur animalitas seu sensualitas alius intra se et in se secundum quem dicitur spiritus tertius supra se secundum quem dicitur mens.”

64 DCD 11.9, 56–57 (48.329): “propter septenarium cognitionem senariam scilicet operum quae fecit Deus, et septimam quietis Dei.”

65 These are themes treated throughout DCD 11.6 (48.326), 11.7 (48.326–327), and 11.9 (48.328–330).

66 IMD Prologus 2 (180).

67 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Nam per senas alas illas recte intelligi possunt sex illuminationum suspensiones quibus anima quasi quibusdam gradibus vel itineribus disponitur ut transeat ad pacem per ecstaticos excessus sapientiae christianae. Via autem non est nisi per ardentissimum amorem crucifixi . . .”

68 IMD 7.3 (212).

69 DCD 11.2, 28–29 (48.322): “ut ad hominis Deum iter esset homini per hominem Deum.”

70 DCD 11.2, 34–35 (48.322): “sola est autem adversus omnes errors via munitissima.”

71 DCD 11.2, 35–36 (48.322): “quo itur Deus, qua itur homo.”

72 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “mentem Francisci quod mense in carne patuit.”

73 Cf. Willemien Otten “The Reception of Augustine in the Early Middle Ages (c. 700–c. 1200): Presence, Absence, Reverence, and Other Modes of Appropriation,” and Saak, Eric L.Augustine and his Late Medieval Appropriations (1200–1500),” in The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine, ed. Pollmann, Karla and Otten, Willemien (Oxford, 2013), 1:23–38 and 1:39–50Google Scholar, respectively.

74 Interestingly, Marianne Schlosser, “Life and Works” (n. 4 above), 11–12 does not include DCD by name in her list of central Augustinian texts known to Bonaventure in his studies: “The canon of books consisted of almost all the works of St Augustine (Enchiridion, De trinitate, Confessiones, De doctrina Christiana, De Genesi ad litteram, De libero arbitrio, writings against Pelagians, about moral-ascetic questions, letters, sermons, etc.).” In connection with “Letter to an Unknown Master,” Joshua Benson summarizes Bonaventure as listing “the top three of Augustine's theological works in the Middle Ages: the Confessions, the Literal Commentary on Genesis and On the Trinity,” thus overlooking DCD even though Bonaventure himself refers to the work. See Benson, J., “Augustine and Bonaventure,” in T&T Clark Companion to Augustine and Modern Theology, ed. Pecknold, Chad C. and Toom, Tarmo (London, 2013), 131–50, at 137Google Scholar. Robert Glenn Davis briefly notes DCD 11 in his study on Bonaventure's association of synderesis with pondus as a way to understand affectus. Treating the pondus amoris in Augustine only briefly, Davis brings DCD 11.28 into relation with texts in Confessiones 13.9, De Genesi ad litteram 4.3–4, and De libero arbitrio 3.1. See Davis, The Weight of Love: Affect, Ecstasy, and Union in the Theology of Bonaventure (New York, 2017), 75–78.

75 These notes are gathered from the Quaracchi Edition of the Opera Omnia edited by Augustine Sepinski, O.F.M., in Opera Theologica Selecta, Tomus V: Tria Opuscula, Sermones Theologici (Florence, 1964) as well as the editions prepared by Boehner, Bonaventure: The Soul's Journey into God (n. 1 above) and Cousins, Bonaventure (n. 37 above).

76 Boehner, Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium (n. 1 above), 114, n. 18.

77 Sepinski, Tria Opuscula, 187, n. 26; and Boehner, Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium (n. 1 above), 46, n. 21.

78 Sepinski, Tria Opuscula, 189, n. 8; and Boehner, Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium (n. 1 above), 54, n. 3.

79 Boehner, Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium (n. 1 above), 117, n. 7.

80 Sepinski, Tria Opuscula, 198, n. 23; and Boehner, Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium (n. 1 above), 124, n. 16.

81 Sepinski, Tria Opuscula, 207, n. 18; Boehner, Saint Bonaventure's Itinerarium (n. 1 above) 86; and Cousins, Bonaventure (n. 37 above), 99, n. 13.

82 Closer comparative study between these instances and the use of DCD in the Summa of Alexander of Hales may be fruitful, but lies outside the current study.

83 Bonaventure, De scientia Christi, q. 1.3 (5:3); q. 1.10 (5:3); q. 1.79 (5:4); q. 2.64 (5:8); q. 3.63 (5:16); q. 4.43 (5:17); q. 6.86 (5:33); q. 7.11 (5:39); and q. 7.2 (5:40).

84 Bonaventure, Quaestiones disputatae de mysterio Trinitatis, q. 1.1, argumenta, sect. 8 (5:46); q. 1.1, argumenta, sect. 9 (5:46); q. 4.1, argumenta, sect. 5 (5:79); q. 5.2, conclusion (5:95); and q. 7.1, conclusio, sect. 5 (5:108).

85 Bonaventure, Quaestiones disputatae de perfectione evangelica, q. 4.1, argumenta, sect. 4 (5:179); q. 4.1, sed contra, sect. 1 (5:180); and q. 4.1, conclusion (5:181).

86 Bonaventure, Commentarius in Evangelium sancti Iohannis, 12.41 (6:419).

87 Bonaventure, Commentarius in Evangelium sancti Lucae, 6:29, par. 69 (7:154); 24:42 seq., par. 54 (7:600); and 24 :53, par. 66 (7:604).

88 DCD 17.8 (48.570–572); Bonaventure, Sermones 1.8.151 and 20.1.3, in Sermones dominicales, ed. Jacques Guy Bougerol (Grottaferrata, 1977), 136 and 272, respectively; and Sermon 51.1.3 De assumptione b. Mariae Virginis, in Sermones de diversis, ed. Jacques Guy Bougerol (Paris, 1993), 2:660.

89 DCD 22.20 (48.841); Bonaventure, Sermones 1.14.219 and 27.14.210, ed. Guy, 136 and 327, respectively.

90 DCD 22.30 (48.862); Bonaventure, Sermo 2.14.252, ed. Guy, 147; and Sermon 2.3.239, ed. Bougerol, 1:97.

91 DCD 8.4 (47.220); Bonaventure, Sermo 33.17.263 Dom. XXII post pentecosten, ed. Bougerol, 1:414.

92 DCD 19.13 (48.679); Bonaventure, Sermo 55.6.146 De sanctis angelis, ed. Bougerol, 2:719.

93 Bonaventure, Collationes in Hexaëmeron 7.5, 7.14, 14.17, and 19.4; ed. Delorme, F., in Collationes in Hexaëmeron et Bonaventuriana quaedam selecta (Florence, 1934), 5:366, 5:367, 5:396, and 5:420Google Scholar; see also 4.2.1; 4.2.9; 3.7.4.

94 Benson, Joshua, “Bonaventure's Inaugural Sermon at Paris: Omnium artifex docuit me sapientia, Introduction and Text,” Collectanea franciscana 82 (2012): 517–62, esp. 517Google Scholar, n. 1 for earlier studies demonstrating the literary genre and manuscript evidence. Citations of Omnium artifex list the section with line number and page number in parentheses from this publication.

95 Benson, “Bonaventure's Inaugural Sermon,” 524. See also Hammon, JayDating Bonaventure's Inception as Regent Master,” Franciscan Studies 67 (2009): 179226CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

96 In progressive order of the books of De civitate Dei these are: DCD 8.11 (47.227–28); 11.1 (48.321); 11.3 twice (48.322–23 and 48.323); 12.18 (48.374); 15.25 (48.493); only named 18.37, 18.38, and 18.39 (48.634); 18.40 (48.635); 18.41 (48.636); and 19.20 (48.687).

97 Bonaventure, Omnium artifex 7, lines 13–15 (540); 7, lines 15–18 (540); and 20, lines 19–20 (547).

98 “Letter in Response to Three Questions of an Unknown Master,” 12, trans. Dominic Monti, O.F.M., in Works of Saint Bonaventure, Volume 5: Writings Concerning the Franciscan Order (Saint Bonaventure NY, 1994), 53.

99 DCD 11.9 (48.328–30), 11.13 (48.333–35), 11.19 (48.337–38), and 11.32–34 (48.351–55). See Gill, Angels and the Order of Heaven (n. 44 above), 15–18 and 22–26.

100 DCD 11.4–7 (48.323–27).

101 DCD 11.7–8 (48.326–28) and 11.11 (48.332–33).

102 DCD 11.16 (48.336) and 11.27 (48.346–47).

103 DCD 11.7 (48.326–27), 11.19 (48.337–38), 11.21 (48.339–40).

104 DCD 11.30–31 (48.350–51).

105 Bonaventure, De scientia Christi, q. 1 (5:3), DCD 11.10 (48:332): “neque enim multae, sed una sapientia est, in qua sunt infinita quaedam eique finiti thesauri rerum intellegibilium, in quibus sunt omnes invisibiles atque incommutabiles rationes rerum etiam visibilium et mutabilium, quae per ipsam factae sunt;” q. 2 (5:8), DCD 11.10 (48:332): “sed una sapientia est;” q. 3 (5:16), DCD 11.10 (48:332): “iste mundus nobis notus esse non posset, nisi esset; deo autem nisi notus esset, esse non posset.”

106 DCD 11.10 (48.332): “neque enim multae, sed una sapientia est, in qua sunt infiniti quidam eique finiti thesauri rerum intellegibilium . . .”

107 Patristic and medieval authors frequently employ the term thesaurus (thensaurus) to refer to book-cabinets, literally and as a common metaphor for a trained memory.

108 Bonaventure, De Sciencia Christi, q.1 (5:3) and q.2 (5:8): “Neque enim multae, sed una sapientia est, in qua sunt infinita quaedam eique finiti thesauri rerum intellegibilium . . .”

109 By contrast, Bonaventure has employed a different compressed form which is more grammatically coherent in his Commentary on the Sentences: Bonaventure, I Sent., d. 35, art. unicus, q. 5 (1:611), “Augustinus de Civitate Dei undecimo: ‘Una est sapientia, in qua infiniti sunt thesauri omnium rerum intelligibilium.’”

110 Brepols Latin Complete (Series A and B) and Monumenta Germaniae Historica.

111 Alexander of Hales, Summa theologica Halensis (hereafter SH) (Quaracchi, 1924–48), 2: P1, In1, Tr2, Q2, M1, C1 (n. 54), p. 68. “Unde Augustinus, XI De civitate Dei: ‘Non sunt multae, sed una est sapientia, in qua sunt infinita quaedam, eique sunt infiniti thesauri rerum intelligibilium, in quibus sunt omnes invisibiles atque incommutabiles rationes rerum visibilium et mutabilium.’”

112 Matthew of Aquasparta, Quaestiones disputatae de productione rerum et de providentia, q.5, responsio S.2.b, ed. G. Gál (Quaracchi, 1956), 123: “Unde Augustinus, XI De civitate, cap. 11: “Non, inquit, multae, sed una sapientia est in qua sunt infinita quaedam atque infiniti thesauri rerum intelligibilium, in quibus sunt omnes invisibiles atque incommutabiles rationes rerum, etiam visibilium et mutabilium quae per ipsum factae sunt.”

113 Anonymi Contra philosophos vel Altercationes christianae philosophiae contra erroneas et seductiles paganorum philosophorum versutias (excerptae ex s. Augustini libris aliquot) 5, ed. Diethard Aschoff, CCL 58A (Turnhout, 1975), 302: “Neque enim multae, sed una sapientia est, in qua sunt infinita quaedam eique infiniti thesauri rerum intellegibilium, in quibus sunt omnes invisibiles atque incommutabiles rationes rerum etiam visibilium et mutabilium, quae per ipsam factae sunt.” Hereafter Contra philosophos will be abbreviated as CP.

114 MS Valencia, Biblioteca de la cathédrale 253 (previously numbered as 178). Anspach published his findings of the initial diplomatic edition as Anonymi altercationes christianae philosophiae contra erroneas et seductiles paganorum philosophorum uersutias excerptae ex s. Augustini libris aliquot in the series Consejo Superior de Investigaciones cientificas (Madrid, 1942).

115 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlison A 368; Blumenkranz published his findings in “Une survie médiévale de la polémique antijuive de saint Augustin,” Revue du Moyen Âge latin 5 (1949): 193–96.

116 Anonymi Contra philosophos, ed. D. Aschoff, CCL 58A (Turnhout, 1975); and Anonymus: Contra Iudaeos, ed. D. Aschoff, CCL 58B (Turnhout, 2009).

117 Dekkers, Eligius, OSB, “Quelques notes sur des florilèges augustiniens anciens et médiévaux,” in Collectanea Augustiniana: Mélanges T. J. van Bavel, ed. Brunning, B., Lamberigts, M., and van Houtem, J. (Leuven, 1990), 27–44, at 30–31Google Scholar.

118 In his introduction to his edition of the CP, Diethard Aschoff has noted that Heinz Schreckenberg favors the earlier dating, while Bernhard Blumenkranz and Jean-Paul Bouhot have proposed the later dating. See Anonymi Contra philosophos, ed. Aschoff, xi.

119 See Momigliano, Arnaldo, “Declines and Falls,” The American Scholar 49 (1980): 3750, at 46Google Scholar.

120 Anonymi Contra philosophos, ed. Aschoff, xxxi.

121 Colish, Marcia L., The Stoic Tradition from Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, Volume 2: Stoicism in Christian Latin Thought through the Sixth Century (Leiden, 1990), 290–91Google Scholar.

122 Dekkers, “Quelques notes sur des florilèges augustiniens” (n. 117 above), 38–40.

123 A similar pattern of unique variants between Alexander of Hales and Bonaventure can be found regarding DCD 11.23 and the Augustinian anthology of Eugippius. Compare DCD 11.23 (48.342): “quoniam sicut pictura cum colore nigro loco suo posito, ita uniuersitas rerum, si quis possit intueri, etiam cum peccatoribus pulchra est, quamuis per se ipsos consideratos sua deformitas turpet”; Eugippius, Excerpta ex operibus s. Augustini 16.31, ed. Pius Knoell, CSEL 9 (Vienna, 1885), 155; Alexander of Hales, Glossa in quattuor libros Sententiarum: glossa in librum primum (1951, 12.465) I, D46 (de eadem respectu boni et mali), N12, Pb, line 20; Summa Halensis I, P1, In1, Tr3, Q3, M3, C5, Art2 (n. 121), p. 190; SH I, P1, In1, Tr6, Q3, t2, M2, C2, Art3 (n. 279), p. 386; SH II, P1, In1, Tr2, Q3, C6, Art1 (n. 82), p. 104; SH II, P1, In4, Tr2, Q2, C3 (n. 433), p. 523; and Bonaventure, I Sent. d. 46, a. unicus, q. 5 (1:830).

124 The common variation of DCD 11.10 appears at CP 5.509 (58A.302), while the lengthy citation of DCD 11.2 extends for twenty-one lines (5.531–52) on the following page.

125 Aschoff, Diethard, “Studien zu zwei anonymen Kompilationen der Spätantike: Anonymi contra philosophos et contra judaeos,” Sacris Erudiri 27 (1984): 37127CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 67. See DCD 11.23, lines 2–4 (48.341): “qui unum nobiscum credunt omnium rerum esse principium, ullam que naturam, quae non est quod deus est, nisi ab illo conditore esse non posse.” and CP 5, 527–30: “Plato: Nobiscum agis, qui etiam unum vobiscum credimus omnium rerum esse principium, nullam que naturam, quae non est quod deus est, nisi ab illo conditore esse non posse.”

126 Diethard Aschoff's highly detailed study of Contra philosophos recognizes the substantial presence of DCD 11, especially chapters 21–28 in Disputatio 5.555–703. However, the lengthy citation of DCD 11.2 in CP 5.531–52 immediately before is not noted separately in his chart. See Aschoff, “Studien zu zwei anonymen Kompilationen,” 45–46.

127 Matthew of Aquasparta, Quaestiones disputatae de fide, q.2, Responsio, p, 65.

128 SH 3: P1, In1, Tr5, Q1, M6, C1, A2, P3, (n. 159), p. 220: “Tertio quaeritur quo modo mediator sit. Augustinus, XI De civitate Dei: ‘Hic est mediator Dei et hominum, homo Christus Iesus: per hoc mediator, per quod homo, per quod et via. Quia si inter eum qui tendit, et illum quo tendit, via media est, est spes perveniendi.’”

129 SH 3: P1, In unica, Tr5, Q1, M6, C1, A2, P3 Quo modo Christus mediator est. Tertio quaeritur quo modo mediator sit (n. 159), p. 220.

130 DCD 11.2, lines 29–30 (48.322).

131 DCD 11.2, lines 30–36 (48.322).

132 See Momigliano, “Declines and Falls” (n. 119 above), 46.

133 Benson, Joshua, “Structure and Meaning in St. Bonaventure's Quaestiones Disputatae De Scientia Christi,” Franciscan Studies 62 (2004): 6790, at 68–71 and 88CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

134 Schumacher, Lydia, Divine Illumination: The History and Future of Augustine's Theory of Knowledge (Oxford, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and eadem, “Bonaventure,” “The Franciscan Order,” and “Illumination, Divine,” in The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine (n. 73 above), 2:696–701; 2:1004–1010; and 2:1176–1182, respectively.

135 Schumacher, Lydia, Early Franciscan Theology: Between Authority and Innovation (Cambridge, 2019), 25CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

136 Schumacher, “Bonaventure,” 696–701; and eadem, “New Directions in Franciscan Studies,” Theology 120 (2017): 253–61, at 259.

137 Schumacher, Divine Illumination, 110–53, esp. 116 and 135–53; and eadem, “Bonaventure's Journey of the Mind into God: A Traditional Augustinian Ascent?,” Medieovo 37 (2012): 201–29.

138 Schumacher, Divine Illumination, 152; and eadem, “Bonaventure's Journey,” 226.

139 Schumacher, Early Franciscan Theology; and eadem, “The Summa Halensis and Augustine,” in The Summa Halensis: Sources and Context, ed. Lydia Schumacher, Veröffentlichungen des Grabmann-Institutes zur Erforschung der mittelalterlichen Theologie und Philosophie 65 (Berlin, 2020), 33–53. Schumacher has also edited an accompanying volume of essays: The Summa Halensis: Doctrines and Debates (Berlin, 2020). These collections join Michael Basse's 2018 publication: Summa theologica Halensis: De legibus et praeceptis: Lateinischer Text mit Übersetzung und Kommentar (Berlin, 2018). Schumacher has also collaborated with Oleg Bychkov on a forthcoming publication “Early Franciscan Theology: A Reader.”

140 Scholars have alternately described the Itinerarium as a “metaphysical reflection” on the transcendentals: Christopher Cullen, Bonaventure (Oxford, 2006), 88; a “dense summa of medieval Christian spirituality”: Cousins, Bonaventure (n. 37 above), 12; “an essential complement to the systematic theology of the Sentences and the Breviloquium”: LaNave, Gregory F., Through Holiness to Wisdom: The Nature of Theology According to St. Bonaventure (Rome, 2005), 86Google Scholar; and a “spiritual guide, leading the mind of the reader to contemplate God and the highest things”: Timothy B. Noone, “St. Bonaventure: Itinerarium Mentis in Deum,” in Debates in Medieval Philosophy: Essential Readings and Contemporary Responses, ed. Jeffrey Hause (New York, 2014), 204–13, at 205.

141 Schumacher, “Summa Halensis,” 35–36 and 40. The masters and students of the medieval universities were expected to demonstrate “exact allegiance to [Augustine's] opinions,” producing “a straightforward re-iteration of any Augustinian theory,” and to “operate in an entirely servile manner with reference to past authorities.”

142 Schumacher, “Summa Halensis,” 35.

143 Carruthers, Mary, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (Cambridge, 1990), 1112Google Scholar.

144 Carruthers, The Book of Memory, 11.

145 Schumacher, “Summa Halensis” (n. 139 above) 35–36. Direct Franciscan novelty met with total resistance in a system which prepared scholars to be “perpetrators of a monolithic past tradition.”

146 Carruthers, The Book of Memory, 11–12.

147 Carruthers, The Book of Memory, 189–91.

148 Carruthers, The Book of Memory, 11–12.

149 Carruthers, The Book of Memory, 13 and 20.

150 The early fourteenth-century Franciscan scholar William of Ockham composed his Dialogus in exile under a papal interdiction banning him from receiving requested books. Nevertheless, he produced from memory a written debate comprising 551 folio pages citing a wide range of authorities, though frequently bemoaning the lack of books so as to “perfect” (not “correct”) his work. While belonging to a bookish intellectual context, his training of the literature of theology and philosophy assumed above all a “memorial” approach. Carruthers, The Book of Memory, 156–58 and 160.

151 Reynolds, Philip L., “Bonaventure's Theory of Resemblance,” Traditio 58 (2003): 219–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

152 Reynolds, “Bonaventure's Theory,” 254.

153 IMD Prologus 3 (180): “Via autem non est nisi per ardentissimum amorem Crucifixi, qui adeo Paulum ad ‘tertium caelum raptum’ transformavit in Christum…qui etiam adeo mentem Francisci absorbuit, quod mense in carne patuit, dum sacratissima passionis stigmata in corpore suo ante mortem per biennium deportavit.”

154 IMD 7.3 (212): “Positus est in exemplum perfectae contemplationis, sicut prius fuerat actionis, tanquam alter Iacob et Israel.”

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