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Safe rates and unpaid labour: Non-driving pay and truck driver work hours

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2023

Takahiko Kudo
Creativ Ceutical (Tokyo Office), Luxembourg
Michael H Belzer*
Wayne State University, USA
Michael H Belzer, 656 W Kirby, 2127 Faculty | Administration Building, Detroit MI 48202-3622, USA. Email:


In the trucking industry, truck drivers’ duties include not only driving trucks but also non-driving labor. However, non-driving work is not necessarily paid. This article analyses how the payment for non-driving duties (non-driving pay) affects truck drivers’ work hours. Using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Long-Haul Truck Driver survey, the study finds that remunerating drivers for non-driving duties decreases drivers’ work hours. Drivers who are paid for their non-driving labor may reach their target earnings in fewer work hours, leading them to refrain from working extremely long hours and more willingly comply with working time regulations. The policy implication is that paying for non-driving labor can prevent drivers from working excessively long hours, mitigating fatigue, and consequent accidents. Thus, pay for non-driving labor may enhance their safety and health.

Original Articles
© The Author(s) 2019

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