Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-rtmr9 Total loading time: 0.227 Render date: 2021-06-14T07:32:33.066Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

The Good of the Church, The Good of the State: The Popes and Jewish Money

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 March 2016

Kenneth R. Stow
Affiliation:
University of Haifa

Extract

In the early thirteenth century the papal cardinal legate in France, Robert of Courson, painted the business of lending in wholly Utopian colours. Should the pope decree, he said, that lending must cease and all men must earn their sustenance by the sweat of their brow, ‘Thus would be removed all usurers, all factious men and all robbers; thus would charity flourish and the fabric of the churches again be builded; and thus would all be brought back again to its pristine state.’ The prospect that acting to eliminate lending would so smoothly result in social perfection, one might expect, should have propelled the Catholic Church, led by the popes, to have made a frontal assault on lending, especially that carried on by Jews. It did not. Only more than four centuries later, in 1682, did the papacy decide to end a policy of actually condoning Jewish lending, and only then did it irrevocably close down the Jewish loan banks in the Papal State.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Ecclesiastical History Society 1992

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1 Cited in Mundy, John, Europe in the High Middle Ages (New York, 1973), p. 175.Google Scholar

2 See Stow, K. R., ‘Papal and royal attitudes toward Jewish lending in the thirteenth century’, Association for Jewish Studies Review, 6 (1981), pp. 16184, esp. p. 176.Google Scholar

3 Stow, ‘Papal and royal attitudes’, p. 176.

4 Stow, K. R., The Church and Neutral History [Hebrew] Iyyunim be-historiografiah (Jerusalem, 1988), pp. 10113.Google Scholar

5 Wm.Jordan, Ch., The French Monarchy and the Jews: from Philip Augustus to the Last Capetians (Philadelphia, 1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, esp. ch. 9.

6 Cited in Chazan, Robert, Church, State, and Jew in the Middle Ages (New York, 1980), p. 263.Google Scholar

7 Jordan, , French Monarchy, pp. 20013.Google Scholar

8 See, e.g., Stacey, R. C., ‘1240-1260: a watershed in Anglo-Jewish relations?HR, 61 (1988), pp. 1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

9 Dobson, R. B., The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of March 1190—Borthwick Papers.no. 45 (York, 1974), p. 37.Google Scholar

10 In Powicke, F. M. and Cheney, C. R., Councils and Synods, with Other Documents Relating to the English Church II A.D. 1205-1313, 2 vols (Oxford, 1964), 2, pp. 955, 959, 9612, 963.Google Scholar

11 Hyams, P. R., ‘The Jewish Minority in Medieval England’, JJS, 25 (1974), pp. 2767 Google Scholar; citing Logan, F. D., ‘Thirteen London Jews and conversion: problems of apostasy in the 1280s’, BIHR, 45 (1973). PP. 21429.Google Scholar

12 On Uccello, see Francastel, Pierre, ‘Un mystère parisien illustré par Uccello: Le Miracle de l’hostie d’Urbino’, Revue Archéologique, (1952), pp. 18091.Google Scholar And see the comments in Grayzel, Solomon, The Church and the Jews in the Thirteenth Century. II 1254-1314 (New York and Detroit, 1990), pp. 1979.Google Scholar

13 Trachtenberg, Joshua, The Devil and the Jews (New Haven, 1943), p. 8 Google Scholar; Baron, S. W., A Social and Religious History of the Jews, 2nd edn rev. (New York, 1952ff.), 2, p. 137.Google Scholar

14 Cited in Poliakov, Leon, Jewish Bankers and the Holy See, from the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Century, tr.Kochan, M. (London, 1977), p. 142.Google Scholar

15 Blumenkranz, Bernhard, Les Auteurs Chretiens latins du moyen âge sur les Juifs et le Judaisme (Paris, 1963), p. 120.Google Scholar

16 See Meeks, W. A. and Wilkens, R. L., Jews and Christians in Antioch in the First Four Centuries of the Common Era (Missoula, 1978).Google Scholar

17 Seen. 4, above, and Stow, K. R., The ‘1007 Anonymous’and Papal Sovereignty:Jewish Perceptions of the Papacy and Papal Policy in the High Middle Ages (Cincinnati, 1984), pp. 246.Google Scholar

18 Jewish Theological Seminary, New York [hereafter J.T.S.] mie. 9486. fol. 6.

19 Ibid., fol. 9.

20 Stow, ‘Papal and royal attitudes’, p. 165.

21 Poliakov, Bankers, pp. 25–7.

22 See, e.g., Boesch, Sofia, ‘Il comune di Siena e il prestito ebraico nei secoli xiv e xv’, in Aspetti e problemi della presenza ebraica nell’Italia centro-settentrionale (Rome, 1983), pp. 175221.Google Scholar

23 Toaff, Ariel, ‘Jewish banking in central Italy, thirteenth through fifteenth centuries’, in Beinart, H., ed., (Hebrew) Jews in Italy (Jerusalem, 1988), p. 118 Google Scholar; ‘Gli Ebrei Romani e il Commercio del Denaro nei Comuni dell’Italia Centrale alla Fine del Duecento’, Italia Judaica, 1 (Rome, 1983), p. 191; but the response of Robert Bonfil, ‘Jewish lenders in Italy during the Renaissance: an economic force?’ Pa’amim, 41 (1990), pp. 58–64.

24 Boesch, ‘Il comune’, pp. 206-8.

25 Pullan, Brian, Rich and Poor in Renaissance Venice (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), pp. 5334 Google Scholar; Poliakov, Bankers, pp. 63-4.

26 Homer, Sidney, A History of Interest Rates, 2000 B.C. to the Present (New Brunswick, 1963), pp. 99132.Google Scholar

27 See the works listed in Bonfil, ‘Jewish Lenders’.

28 See, e.g., Meneghin, Vittorino, Bernardino da Feltre e i monti di pietà (Vicenza, 1974), and Muzzarelli, M. G., Ebrei e città d’Italia in età di transizione: Il Caso di Cesena dal XIV al XVI secolo (Bologna, 1983)Google Scholar; but see the rebuttal of Segre, R.Bernardino da Feltre, i Monti die Pietà e i banchi ebraici’. Rivista Storica Italiana, 90 (1978), pp. 81833.Google Scholar

29 See Toaf, Ariel, Il vino e la carne (Bologna, 1988), p. 185.Google Scholar

30 See on these events, Stow, K. R., Catholic Thought and Papal Jewry Policy, 1555-1593 (New York, 1977).Google Scholar

31 See Simoncelli, Paolo, ‘Inquisizione Romana e Riforma in Italia’, Rivista Storica Italiana, 100 (1988), pp. 5125.Google Scholar

32 See here Loevinson, E., ‘La Concession de banques de prêtes aux Juifs par les papes’, REJ, 92 (1932), pp. 130 Google Scholar; 93 (1933). PP. 27-52. 157-78; 94 (1934). PP. 57-72, 167-83; 95 (1935). pp. 23-43.

33 Delumeau, Jean, Vie economique et sociale de Rome (Paris, 1957–9), p. 493.Google Scholar

34 See Prodi, Paolo, Il Sovrano Pontefice (Roma, 1982).Google Scholar

35 J.T.S., mic. 9486, passim.

36 Ibid., fol. 62.

37 J.T.S., mic. 9486, fol. 9: Decretales, 5.19.12 (cols 814-15).

38 Ibid., fol. 95: ‘Quod si filii liberae … per flagella tribularionum sunt provocandi ad bonum, quanto magis servi et filii ancillae per laboriosam inopiam, incitandi sunt ad conversionem, subtracto praccipuo ad earn impedimento usurarum …’.

39 Cited in Stow, Catholic Thought, pp. 217–20.

40 See Stow, K. R., Taxation, Community and State (Stuttgart, 1982), p. 70.Google Scholar

41 J.T.S., mic. 9486, fol. 96.

42 Petrocchi, M., Roma nel Seicento—Storia di Rome, 14 (Bologna, 1970), pp. 823.Google Scholar

43 See Gilchrist, John, The Church and Economic Activity in the Middle Ages (London, 1969), pp. 629.Google Scholar

44 Petrocchi, Roma, p. 83.

45 J.T.S., mic. 9486, fols 42-3.

46 Silva, J. G. da, Banque et credit en Italie au XVIIe siècle (Paris, 1969), pp. 1023.Google Scholar

47 See, again, Bonfil, ‘Jewish lenders’.

48 See Stow, Taxation, ch. I. 248

49 See Pullan, Rich and Poor, pp. 510-38, 576-8.

50 J.T.S., mic. 9486, fol. 98: ‘Ne quis autem existimet dieta duntaxac recte procedere secundum Politicam Christianam, quam Pseudo politici vocant politicam de trivio, crassam, communem, omnibus obviam, ideo examinanda sunt edam secundum Politicam Ulani, quam ipsi vocant politicam de penetrali, subtilem, nobilem…. Apud pseudopoliticos scientia regnandi seu ratio status nihil honestate metitur; sed quicquid ad consequendam, tuendam, augendamque potentiam principis utile est, illud unum duntaxat est bonum, iustum, licitum atque honestum.’

51 J.T.S., mic. 9486, fol. 98. Oncejews worked ‘in fodinis, in agris, in mechanicis… [but] at hoc tempore divites facti ob transitum ab honesto corporis labore ad otium turpissimi questus, eo evaserunt, ut Hebraeorum gens quoad personas, sit statui non minus quam principi prorsus inutilis et infructuosa mane neque in aula, neque in magistratu, neque in militia, neque in mercatura, neque in mechanicis, neque in agricultura auget civile corpus huiusmodi artium et officiorum… unde … papa iudaeos ad laborandum manibus cogat.’

52 On this issue, see the articles by Arbel, Benjamin, Filippini, J. P., Ravid, Benjamin, and Toaff, Renzo, in Schwarzfuchs, Simon and Toaff, Ariel, eds., The Mediterranean and the Jews: Banking, Finance, and International Trade, Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries (Ramat-Gan, 1988)Google Scholar; and esp. Israel, Jonathan, European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism, 1550-1750 (Oxford, 1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, chs 2 and 3.

53 See Ravid, Benjamin, Economics and Toleration in Seventeenth Century Venice (Jerusalem, 1978), PP. 3993.Google Scholar

54 See Hertzberg, Arthur, The French Enlightenment and the Jews (New York, 1968), pp. 413 Google Scholar; Israel, European Jewry, pp. 218, 232.

55 J.T.S., mic., 9486, fol. 102.

56 Ibid., fol. 96. ‘Praecipitium Hebraeorum a Stato opulento, in quo nunc sunt… haudquaquam … praeponderare debeat malo, quod eadem Resp. patitur in Mutuatariis Christianis: quia malo certo, probabili, et absolute futuro, imo iam in sua causa adaequata existenti de facto, praeponderare non potest malum incertum, improbabile, futurum … Damnum enim mutuatariorum radicatur in ipsa natura usurae, tanquam dies in Sole.’

57 Tamilia, Donato, Il sacro Mottle di Pietà di Roma (Rome, 1900), p. 85.Google Scholar

58 Prodi, Il Sovrano, pp. 136-47, esp. p. 140.

59 Marx, Karl, ‘Sur Judenfrage’, ed. Grossmann, Stefan (Berlin, 1919), p. 42.Google Scholar

1
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Good of the Church, The Good of the State: The Popes and Jewish Money
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Good of the Church, The Good of the State: The Popes and Jewish Money
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Good of the Church, The Good of the State: The Popes and Jewish Money
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *