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Even though psychosocial risks can affect the entire working population regardless of demographic variables, multiple publications claim that women are more exposed to psychosocial risks and that psychosocial risks affect people in a different way, depending on their age. This study aims to investigate demographic differences (i.e., sex and age) in health care workers, with an aim which is twofold: (i) To know if these geographic differences lead to differences in perception of psychosocial risks; and (ii) to identify the job demands and resources with the highest impact on work engagement and performance. A sample of 4,451 people from the sanitary sector, pertaining to 75 Spanish hospitals, was analyzed to test the hypotheses. ANOVA results demonstrated that women show significantly higher impact values in job demands than men, as well as higher values in job resources. Moreover, the group of younger people (< 40 years) showed significantly lower levels in demands, and significantly higher in job resources, wellbeing, and organizational outcomes. Finally, multi-group SEM analyses showed that the impact of job demands and resources on work engagement and performance is significant, regardless of sex and age, although there are changes in the coefficients. The differences in the perception of job demands and resources of the different demographic groups can be used to develop specific psychosocial intervention in health care workers.
Social psychology findings have fared poorly in multi-site replication attempts. This article considers and evaluates multiple factors that may contribute to such failures, other than the “crisis” assumption that most of the field’s published research is so badly flawed that it should be dismissed wholesale. Low engagement by participants may reduce replicability of some findings (while not affecting certain others). Incentives differ between original researchers and replicators. If multi-site replications are indeed biased toward failure, this may have a damaging effect on the field’s ability to build correct theories.
Attitude strength (what makes attitudes durable and impactful) has become an important topic in the domain of social influence. We review three areas in which the traditional view of attitude strength has been modified or updated since the publication of Petty and Krosnick’s 1995 edited book on the topic. First, although it was widely assumed that there were different categories of strength variables (i.e., operative versus meta-cognitive), it may now be better to recognize that each strength property can be measured both structurally and subjectively and that each measure is useful. Second, although scholars assumed that virtually all persuasion techniques would work better on weaker than stronger attitudes, recent research suggests that some techniques might actually work better on stronger than weaker attitudes. Third, although stronger attitudes often guide behavior better than weaker ones, when strength is challenged or weak attitudes are threatening, people can be motivated to act to demonstrate or restore certainty. This can result in weaker attitudes leading to more extreme behavior.
This article presents self-validation theory (SVT) as a framework predicting when mental contents guide performance. First, we illustrate how confidence can validate people’s thoughts (goals, beliefs, identity) increasing and decreasing performance, depending on what thoughts are validated. This first section reviews examples of validation processes in guiding intellectual performance in academic settings, sport performance in athletes, as well as performance on diverse social tasks. SVT specifies moderating conditions for validation processes to operate. Therefore, in the second section of this review, we identify unique and testable moderators for metacognitive processes demonstrating when and for whom validation processes are more likely to occur. A third section calls for future research identifying new validating variables (e.g., preparation, courage) capable of increasing usage of unexplored thoughts relevant to performance (e.g., expectations). This final section examines new domains for validation (e.g., group performance, cheating in performance), discusses to what extent people can use self-validation strategies deliberatively to improve their performance and addresses when performance can be impaired by invalidation (e.g., due to identity threat).
Climate change mitigation depends on tracking public opinion across populations. Social scientists can collaborate with environmental organizations that conduct surveys among their audiences. We teamed up with the non-profit Milieudefensie, who surveyed Dutch attitudes towards climate change in 2019–2020. The large dataset had face-to-face (n = 3,102) and online interviews (n = 30,311) of urbanity, climate concern, policy preferences, interviewer-rated engagement with climate change, and behavior (whether the interviewee provided their email and phone number to the organization). To reveal the representativeness of these kinds of convenience samples, we tested whether attitudes and their associations with behaviors were similar to previous studies. Climate concern, preference for climate policy, and interviewer-rated engagement were high. In the online survey, 47% of respondents signed up for an email newsletter, and 7% provided their phone number. Higher climate concern and preference for climate policy predicted interviewer-rated engagement and behavior (weak to strong associations). Urbanity was not related to concern, policy preferences, or interviewer-rated engagement. Policy preferences did not differ between the face-to-face and online samples. The results provide convergent evidence to conventional online surveys. These Dutch residents appear slightly more engaged with systemic change to mitigate climate change than the general public.
Imagine that you are a researcher interested in disentangling the underlying mechanisms that motivate certain individuals to self-sacrifice for a group or an ideology. Now, visualize that you are one of a few privileged that have the possibility of interviewing people who have been involved in some of the most dramatic terrorist attacks in history. What should you do? Most investigations focused on terrorism do not include empirical data and just a handful of fortunate have made face-to-face interviews with these individuals. Therefore, we might conclude that most experts in the field have not directly met the challenge of experiencing studying violent radicalization in person. As members of a research team who have talked with individuals under risk of radicalization, current, and former terrorists, our main goal with this manuscript is to synopsize a series of ten potential barriers that those interested in the subject might find when making fieldwork, and alternatives to solve them. If all the efforts made by investigators could save the life of a potential victim, prevent an individual from becoming radicalized, or make him/her decide to abandon the violence associated with terrorism, all our work will have been worthwhile.
In recent years, researchers have begun to study the social consequences of conspiracy beliefs. However, little research has investigated the impact of conspiracy beliefs on interpersonal relationships. In this review, we draw attention to this issue by summarizing available empirical evidence and proposing potential social-psychological mechanisms to explain whether and why conspiracy theories affect interpersonal relationships. We firstly discuss that the attitude change that often accompanies the internalization of conspiracy beliefs might distance people’s opinions and, consequently, erode their relationships. Furthermore, we argue that the stigmatizing value of conspiracy theories can negatively affect the evaluation of conspiracy believers and discourage others from getting close to them. Finally, we consider that the misperception of social norms associated with the acceptance of certain conspiracy narratives can lead conspiracy believers to engage in non-normative behavior. Others are likely to perceive such behavior negatively, resulting in diminished interpersonal interaction. We highlight the need for further research to address these issues, as well as the potential factors that may prevent relationships being eroded by conspiracy beliefs.
The watching eyes effect has gained significant attention in recent years both from scientists and from policy makers and professionals in the field. The phenomenon posits that the mere presence of eye cues can promote prosocial behavior. However, there is a growing debate about the generality of the effect across various measures and contexts. This review seeks to combine various distinct -and formerly isolated- perspectives by identifying four key components for effective interventions based on the watching eyes effect: Anonymity, crowdedness, costs, and exposure. Eye cues need to reduce perceived anonymity, be placed in non-crowded places, target low-cost prosocial acts and appear for a short amount of time. Next to these conditions, we discuss implications for other cues to reputation and recommend directions that will stimulate further research and applications in society.
Past studies have shown that being exposed to ethnocultural diversity can positively impact individual creativity. Yet, little is known about the interplay between situational (i.e., diversity) and dispositional (e.g., personality) factors in predicting creativity. Taking a person-situation approach, we use social network data to test the moderating role of personality in the relationship between having an ethnoculturally diverse network and creativity. Moreover, we investigate these questions in a diverse community sample of immigrants residing in the city of Barcelona (N = 122). Moderation analyses revealed that network diversity predicted higher levels of creativity in migrant individuals with medium to high levels of extraversion, and in those with low to medium levels of emotional stability. These results highlight the need to acknowledge the important role played by interacting individual-level dispositions and more objective meso-level contextual conditions in explaining one’s ability to think creatively, especially in samples that have traditionally been underrepresented in previous literature.
Emerging adulthood is an important developmental period, associated to mental health risk. Resilience research points to both social and personal protective factors against development of psychopathology, but there is paucity with their comprehensive study in young adults. This study provides and initial integrative approach to model multiple dimensions of perceived social support (i.e., from family, friends, significant others) and personal factor of trait resilience (i.e., coping and persistence during stress, tolerance to negative affect, positive appraisals, trust) and their hypothesized contributions to reducing depression and anxiety rates. The study was conducted with a sample of 500 Spanish emerging adults (18 to 29 years old). Regression analyses and multiple mediation models were performed to test our hypotheses. Results showed that social support from family was the dimension with the highest strength relating individual differences in resilience. Furthermore, analyses supported a differential mediating role of specific resilience factors (coping and persistence during stress, tolerance to negative affect, positive appraisals, trust) in partially accounting for the association between higher social support from family and lower depression and anxiety levels in young adults. These results may inform new programs of mental health during emerging adulthood via the promotion of different sources of social support and their related resilience pathways contributing to low emotional symptomatology at this stage of development.
The study explores the meanings that family caregivers of people with dementia ascribe to the past, present, and future of their role as a caregiver, and how their integration into caregiving trajectories is related to caregivers’ burdens and gains. The sample was made up of 197 family caregivers (Mage = 62.1, SD = 12.3, 70.1% females). They completed three incomplete sentences regarding their past, present, and future caring role, the Zarit Burden Interview and the Gains Associated with Caregiving scale. Sentence completions were content analyzed, and the associations between the resulting trajectories and burdens and gains were studied by means of a one-way ANOVA. Caregivers differed in the meanings ascribed to past, present, and future of their role. Stable-negative (M = 43.6, SD = 13.3), regressive (M = 43.3, SD = 12.7), and present-enhancing (M = 37.4, SD = 13.7) trajectories showed higher levels of burdens than progressive (M = 31.3, SD = 12.3) and/or stable-positive trajectories (M = 26.1, SD = 13.7). Progressive trajectories (M = 38.9, SD = 15.7) were related to more gains than regressive trajectories (M = 28.6, SD = 12.7). Family caregivers’ evaluations of their past, present, and future are not only important separately, but their combination into caregiving trajectories is also relevant. Such trajectories might be relevant when designing interventions to help caregivers reduce their burden levels and increase the benefits ascribed to their experience. The most adaptive trajectory identified was the progressive one, whereas the regressive trajectory was the most dysfunctional.
The identification of fraudulent and questionable research conduct is not something new. However, in the last 12 years the aim has been to identify specific problems and concrete solutions applicable to each area of knowledge. For example, previous work has focused on questionable and responsible research conducts associated with clinical assessment, measurement practices in psychology and related sciences; or applicable to specific areas of study, such as suicidology. One area of study that merits further study of questionable and responsible research behaviors is psychometrics. Focusing on psychometric research is important and necessary, as without adequate evidence of construct validity the overall validity of the research is at least debatable. Our interest here is to (a) identifying questionable research conduct specifically linked to psychometric studies; and (b) promoting greater awareness and widespread application of responsible research conduct in psychometrics research. We believe that the identification and recognition of these conducts is important and will help us to improve our daily work as psychometricians.
Being married has been associated with a better attitude to aging and a buffer against stressful situations, factors that influence mental health. The study analyzes the role of self-perceptions of aging and stress related to the COVID–19 pandemic in the association between marital satisfaction and participants’ mental health. 246 people older than 40 years in a marital/partner relationship were assessed. A path analysis was tested, where self-perceptions of aging and stress from the COVID–19 situation were proposed as mechanisms of action in the association between marital satisfaction and anxious and depressive symptoms. Marital satisfaction, self-perceptions of aging, and stress associated with the COVID–19 pandemic significantly contributed to the model and explained 31% of the variance in participants´ anxious symptomatology, and 42% of the variance in depressive symptomatology. The indirect path of self-perceptions of aging and stress associated with the COVID–19 pandemic in the link between marital satisfaction and anxious and depressive symptoms was statistically significant for both outcome variables. The findings of this study suggest that lower perceived marital satisfaction is associated with higher levels of negative self-perceptions of aging and with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. Public significance statements: This study suggests that higher marital satisfaction may be a buffer for negative self-perception of aging, and both factors are related with experiencing less stress from COVID–19. These links are associated with less anxious and depressive symptoms.
Personality traits, automatic thoughts, and affective states during sexual activity in men have been studied; however, little is known about their interaction. The current study examines the moderation role of personality traits on the relationship between cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual behavior in men. An online sample of 497 men (227 gay men) was recruited, and participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Automatic Thoughts from the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ) subscale, The Positive Affect-Negative Affect scales (PANAS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)/and the IIEF for men who have sex with men (IIEF-MSM). The main findings showed that extraversion, absence of erotic thoughts, positive affect, and negative affect were significant predictors of sexual functioning in gay (β = .266, β = –.345, β = .361; β = –.292, p < .05, respectively) and heterosexual men (β = .208, β = –.382, β = .318; β = –.214, p < .05, respectively); neuroticism significantly predicted sexual functioning only in gay men (β = –.244, p < .05). Extraversion was a moderator between absence of erotic thoughts and sexual functioning in heterosexual men (p = .004), and between positive affect and sexual functioning in gay men (p = .001), and Neuroticism was a moderator between positive affect and sexual functioning in gay men (p < .001). Overall, extraversion buffered the negative impact of absence of erotic thoughts on heterosexual men sexual functioning and the negative impact of lower positive affect on gay men sexual functioning, whereas low neuroticism boost the impact of positive affect on gay men sexual functioning.
Learning approaches describe the students’ degree of cognitive commitment to learning in diverse types of academic tasks and educational environments. Even though from a micro-level perspective different profiles of approaches have been identified in high-achievement undergraduates attending several majors, such profiles have not been examined from a macro-level approach in terms of distinct educational cultures. Therefore, the research involved two studies conducted on undergraduates from Argentina and Spain: The first one was aimed at analyzing the psychometric features of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) whereas the second was focused on examining the learning approaches profiles of high and low achievers attending the same major (Psychology) in two different educational cultures (Spain and Argentina). The scale’s original internal structure, examined on a sample of 400 participants (50% Spanish), was verified except for one item, which was fatherly eliminated. The resulting structure was tested and proven verified in a new sample (N = 1,334; 58.3% Spanish) by confirmatory factor analysis, factorial invariance, and internal consistency studies. External validity evidence was examined as well. Additionally, norms to be used in the professional field were calculated.
Profiles of learning approaches by academic achievement from each country were examined by latent class analysis. In both cases, high achievers reported higher and more frequent use of the Deep and Strategic approaches and lower and less frequent usage of the Surface one. Further studies should replicate these analyses in undergraduates attending other majors in order to test the hypothesis sustaining these findings’ generalization.
Work engagement is a scientifically consolidated variable, due to its fundamental role in business practice. To increase work engagement in companies, it is necessary to know which variables are antecedents and how they relate to each other. These variables include job autonomy, job crafting, and psychological capital. This research evaluates the relationships between job autonomy, job crafting, psychological capital, and work engagement. Specifically, based on the job demands and resources model and the conservation of resources theory, the study examines these relationships in a sample of 483 employees, through a serial mediation model. The results show that job crafting, and psychological capital mediates the relationship between job autonomy and work engagement. These results have practical implications for interventions to promote employee work engagement.
Focusing on the ideological and worldview premises of moral reasoning, our study (N = 313) has as a starting point the well-known relationship between morality and distributive justice norms. We examined the serially mediating role of progressiveness on morality, moral absolutism, and consistency norm on the relationship between ideological/worldview perspectives and distributional criteria. Three groups of respondents were formed based on participants’ ideological and worldview perceptions and then serial mediation analysis was conducted. The present findings suggest that morality is predicted by ideology and worldview and predicts attitudes toward the norms of equity and welfare chauvinism, through moral absolutism and interpretations of consistency norm, thus confirming our hypothesis. Moderate Passive Individualists emerged as the group who adopts the most progressive and inclusive attitude towards moral evaluations and practices, while Demobilized Collectivists and Neoliberals maintain a more conservative attitude towards issues that are subjected to moral framing. Our findings shed light on the crucial role of consistency norm, which has not received enough attention until now.
Even though wide access to any warranted information in the modern age, the problem of unfounded belief is still relevant, since these beliefs often lead to negative consequences (e.g., vaccination refusal, homeopathic treatment, etc.). The aim of this study was testing the relationship of social worldviews with paranormal beliefs and conspiracy beliefs. We assumed dimensionality hypothesis based on functional standpoint that there should be a general factor (underlying all the domains of paranormal beliefs and generic conspiracist beliefs), which has associations with the social worldviews as well. Derived our analysis from the survey of 228 participants (Mage = 30.6, SD = 11.7), we found that (a) the structure of paranormal and generic conspiracist beliefs can be described by a bifactor model; (b) the general factor of paranormal and generic conspiracist beliefs in the bifactor model was positively associated with global belief in just world and dangerous worldview; (c) paranormal beliefs were positively associated with global belief in just world and negatively associated with competitive worldview; (d) generic conspiracist beliefs were positively associated with dangerous worldview, competitive worldview, and zero-sum game belief; (e) contrary to our hypotheses, there was no evidence for any negative association of paranormal beliefs with dangerous worldview or zero-sum game belief and for any negative association of generic conspiracist beliefs with global belief in just world. We claim that the unfounded beliefs can be of some functional nature, demonstrating a connection with social worldviews, which opens up new perspectives for considering this problem within the framework of social psychology.
On March 11, 2004, Madrid suffered one of the worst terrorist attacks in the history of Spain, leaving more than 190 dead and 2,000 injured. For years, the psychological consequences of the attacks have been studied; however, its long-term effects on symptomatology and especially on well-being remains unknown. This study aims to explore, through a qualitative approach, pathways and obstacles to the well-being of those affected directly or indirectly by the attacks of March 11 in Madrid. Two focus groups were held, one for indirect victims and one for direct victims. Subsequently, a thematic analysis of the materials obtained was carried out. More than 10 years after the attacks, most of the participants reported great difficulty in achieving well-being. Acceptance and victims’ associations seemed to act as key facilitators, while symptoms, political institutions and the media were the main obstacles. Direct and indirect victims presented similar data although aspects such as guilt and family relationships played a different role in their well-being.