Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-vq995 Total loading time: 0.399 Render date: 2021-10-20T16:41:39.562Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

An Exploratory Study of Phonological Awareness and Working Memory Differences and Literacy Performance of People that Use AAC

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 January 2013

María Luisa Gómez Taibo
Affiliation:
Universidad de La Coruña (Spain)
Pilar Vieiro Iglesias*
Affiliation:
Universidad de La Coruña (Spain)
María del Salvador González Raposo
Affiliation:
Universidad Los Andes (Venezuela)
María Sotillo Méndez
Affiliation:
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain)
*
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Pilar Vieiro Iglesias. Universidad de La Coruña. Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación. Campus de Elviña s/n. 15071 La Coruña. (Spain). E-mail: vieiro@udc.es

Abstract

Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests –orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed.

En nuestro estudio participaron doce adolescentes y adultos jóvenes con parálisis cerebral con necesidades comunicativas especiales, usuarios de comunicación aumentativa y alternativa. Éstos fueron clasificados según su capacidad de memoria operativa (alta vs. baja) en 2 grupos de 6 participantes, y en otros dos, también de 6 participantes de acuerdo a sus habilidades fonológicas (altas vs. bajas). Todos ellos fueron comparados según sus habilidades lectoras (conocimiento ortográfico, lectura de palabras, de pseudopalabras, capacidad de deletreo de palabras, de pseudopalabras y deletreo de nombres de dibujos. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de altas y bajas capacidades fonológicas así como entre los grupos de alta y baja capacidad de memoria en algunas de las medidas estudiadas. Los sujetos con alta capacidad de memoria obtuvieron puntuaciones significativamente mejores en la tarea ortográfica y en la lectura de palabras. Por otra parte, los sujetos con mejores habilidades fonológicas rindieron significativamente mejor en las tareas de lectura de palabras, deletreo de pseudopalabras y de nombres de dibujos. Desde un punto de vista descriptivo, podemos afirmar que las habilidades fonológicas y de memoria operativa se mostraron como buenos predictores del éxito lector en sujetos usuarios de CAA, del mismo modo que sucede en el resto de la población sin trastornos. Las implicaciones de estos resultados se discuten en este trabajo.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Baddeley, A. D. (1982). Reading and working memory. Bulletin of The Bristish Psychological Society, 35, 414417.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Learning and Motivation (pp. 4789). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, B. (1985). Phonological coding and short-term memory in patients without speech. Journal of Memory and Language, 24(4), 490502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baron, J. (1979). Ortographic and word specific mechanisms in children's reading of words. Child Development, 50, 587594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basil, C. (1998). Técnicas de enseñanza de lectura y escritura en alumnos con problemas graves de motricidad y habla. In Basil, C., Soro-Camats, E., & Rosell, C. (Eds.), Sistemas de signos y ayudas técnicas para la comunicación aumentativa y la escritura (pp. 135148). Barcelona: Masson.Google Scholar
Bedrosian, J. (1999). Efficacy Research Issues in AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication 15, 4555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berninger, V. W., & Gans, B. M. (1986). Language profiles in nonspeaking individuals of normal intelligence with severe cerebral palsy. Augmentative and Alternative Communication 2, 4550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, D. (1989). Test for reception of grammar (TROG). Manchester, UK: Department of Psychology, University of ManchesterGoogle Scholar
Bishop, D. (1985). Spelling ability in congenital dysarthria: Evidence against articulatory coding in translating between graphemes and phonemes. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 2(3), 229251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, D., & Robson, J. (1989a). Accurate non-word spelling despite congenital inability to speak: Phoneme-grapheme conversion does not require subvocal articulation. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, D., & Robson, J. (1989b). Unimpaired short-term memory and rhyme judgement in congenitally speechless individuals: implications for the notion of “Articulatory Coding”. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 41(1), 123140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, D., Byers Brown, B., & Robson, J. (1990). The relationship between phoneme discrimination, speech production, and language comprehension in cerebral-palsied individuals. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 210219.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blachman, B. A. (1991). Early intervention for children's reading problems: Clinical applications of the research in phonological awareness. Topics in Language Disorders, 12, 5165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R. S., & Tangel, D. M. (1994). Kindergarten teachers develop phonemic awareness in low-income, inner-city classrooms: Does it make a difference?. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 6, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blischak, D. M. (1994). Phonologic Awareness: Implications for individuals with little or no functional speech. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 10, 245254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowey, J., Cain, M., & Ryan, S. (1992). A reading-level design study of phonological skills underlying fourth-grade children's word reading difficulties. Child Development, 63, 9991011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bradley, L. (1988). Making connections in learning to read and spell. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1, 318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brady, S., & Shankweiler, D. (1991). Phonological processes in literacy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Bruck, M. (1990). Word-recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26, 439454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruck, M. (1992). Persistence of dyslexics' phonological awareness deficits. Developmental Psychology, 28, 874886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bryant, P., & Bradley, L. (1998). Los problemas infantiles de lectura. Madrid: Alianza Minor.Google Scholar
Bryant, P., Nunes, T., & Bindman, M. (2000). The relations between children's linguistic awareness and spelling, the case of the apostrophe. Reading and Writing, 12, 253276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, B., & Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1990). Acquiring the alphabetic principle: A case for teaching recognition of phoneme identity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 805812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2000). Phonological skills and comprehension failure: a test of phonological processing deficit hypothesis. Reading and Writing, 13 (1–2), 3156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calero, A., Pérez, R., Maldonado, A., & Sebastián, M. E. (1999). Materiales curriculares para favorecer el acceso a la lectura en educación infanti [Curricular materials to favour the access to the reading in childhood education]. Madrid: Escuela Española.Google Scholar
Case, R. (1985). Intelectual development: Birth to adulthood. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Coltheart, M. (1978). Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In Underwood, G. (Ed.), Strategies of information processing. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Coltheart, M. (1980). Deep dyslexia: a right hemisphere hypothesis. In Coltheart, M., Patterson, K. E., & Marshall, J. C. (Eds.), Deep Dyslexia. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google ScholarPubMed
Coltheart, M. (1985). In defence of dual-route models of reading. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 709710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coltheart, M., Davelaar, E., Jonassen, J., & Besner, D. (1977). Access to the internal lexicon. In Dornic, S. (Ed.) Attention and Performance (Vol.6). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Cuetos, F., Rodríguez, B., & Ruano, E. (2000). PROLEC. Batería de Evaluación de los procesos lectores de los niños de Educación Primaria. Madrid: TEA.Google Scholar
Dahlgren Sandberg, A. (1998). Reading and spelling among nonvocal children with cerebral palsy: Influence of home and school literacy development. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 10, 2350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlgren Sandberg, A. (2001). Reading and spelling, phonological awareness, and working memory in children with severe speech impairments: a longitudinal study. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 17(1), 11–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlgren Sandberg, A., & Hjelmquist, E. (1992). Bliss users in preschool, school and after completed formal education. Assessment of number and estimates of degree of use of Bliss. Göteborg Psychological Reports, 22(6).Google Scholar
Dahlgren Sandberg, A., & Hjelmquist, E. (1996a). A comparative, descriptive study of reading and writing skills among nonspeaking children: a preliminary study. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 31, 289308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlgren Sandberg, A., & Hjelmquist, E. (1996b). Phonological awareness and literacy abilities in nonspeaking preschool children with cerebral palsy. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 12, 138153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahlgren Sandberg, A., & Hjelmquist, E. (1997). Language and literacy in nonvocal children with cerebral palsy. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9, 107133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Defior, S., Justicia, F., & Martos, F. (1998). Desarrollo del reconocimiento de palabras en lectores normales y retrasados en función de diferentes variables lingüísticas. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 83, 5974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denton, C., Hanbrouck, J., Weaver, L., & Riccio, C. (2000). What do we know about phonological awareness in spanish?. Reading Psychology, 21, 335352.Google Scholar
Desmette, D., Hupet, M., van der Linden, M., & Schelstraete, M. A. (1995). Adaptation et validation en langue française du reading Span Test de Daneman et Carpenter. L' Année Psychologique, 95, 459482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domínguez, A., & Cuetos, F. (1992). Desarrollo de las habilidades de reconocimiento de palabras en niños con distintas competencias lectoras. Cognitiva, 4(2), 193208.Google Scholar
Dunn, L., Padilla, E., Lugo, D., & Dunn, L. (1986). Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes Peabody. Adaptación Hispanoamericana (TVIP). Madrid: Psymtec.Google Scholar
Ehri, L. C. (1991). Development of the ability to read words. In Barr, R., Kamil, M., Mosenthal, P., & Pearson, P. D. (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research. (Vol. 2, pp. 383417). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S.R., Willows, D. M., Schuster, B. V., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the national reading panel's meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N., & Large, B. (1988). The early stages of reading: a longitudinal study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2, 4776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C., & Miles, T. R. (1981). A lexical encoding deficiency I: Experimental evidence. In Pavlidis, G. Th., & Miles, T. R. (Eds.) Dyslexia Research and its Applications to Education. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
Elosúa, M. R., Gutiérrez, F., García, J. A., Luque, S. L., & Gárate, M. (1996). Adaptación española del Reading Span Test de Daneman y Carpenter. Psicothema, 2, 383395.Google Scholar
Foley, B. E. (1993). The development of literacy in individuals with severe congenital speech and motor impairments. Topics in language disorders, 13(2), 1632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foley, B. E., & Pollatsek, A. (1999). Phonological processing and reading abilities in adolescents and adults with severe congenital speech impairments. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 15, 156173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foy, J., & Mann, V. (2009). Effects of onset density in preschool children: Implications for development of phonological awareness and phonological representation. Applied Psycholingustic, 30(2), 339361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frith, U. (1980). Unexpected spelling problems. In Frith, U. (Ed.), Cognitive processes in spelling. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Galaburda, A. M. (1988). The pathogenesis of childhood dyslexia. In Plum, F. (Ed.), Language, Communication and the Brain. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
Gathercole, S., & Baddeley, A. (1990). Phonological memory deficits in language disordered children: Is there causal connection? Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 336360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gathercole, S., & Baddeley, A. (1993). Working memory and language. Hove, UK: Lawrence Earlbaum.Google Scholar
Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. (1990). Phonological skills and learning to read. UK: LEA.Google Scholar
Gough, P. B., Ehri, L. C., & Treiman, R. (1992). Reading acquisition. Hillsdale: LEA.Google Scholar
Grainger, J., & Ferrand, L. (1996). Masked orthographic and phonological priming in visual word recognition and naming: cross-task comparisons. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 623647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, J., & Bowey, J. (1994). Phonological analysis skills, verbal working memory, and reading ability in second-grade children. Child Development, 65, 938950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hart, P., Scherz, J., Kenn, A., & Hodson, B. (2007). Analysis of spelling error patterns of individuals with complex communication needs and physical impairments. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 23(1), 1629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Higginbotham, D. J., & Bedrosian, J. (1995). Subject selection in AAC research: Decision Points. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 11, 1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoien, T., & Lundberg, I. (1992). Dislexia. Stockholm: Naturoch Kultur.Google Scholar
Hoien, T., Lundberg, I., Larsen, J. P., & Tonnessen, F. E. (1989). Profiles of reading related skills in dyslexic families. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1, 381392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoien, T., Lundberg, I., Stanovich, K. E., & Bjaalid, I. (1995). Components of phonological awareness. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 171188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kail, R. (1986). Source of age differences in speed processing. Child Development, 57, 969987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koppenhaver, D. (1991). A descriptive analysis of classroom literacy instruction provided to children with severe speech and physical impairments. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapell Hill, NC.Google Scholar
Koppenhaver, D. A., & Yoder, D. (1992). Literacy issues in persons with severe physical and speech impairments. In Gaylord-Ross, R. (Ed.), Issues and research in special education Vol. 2 (pp. 156201). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
Koppenhaver, D. A., & Yoder, D. (1993). Classroom literacy instruction for children with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI): What is and what might be. Topics in Language Disorders, 13 (2), 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Light, J. (1999). Do Augmentative and Alternative Communication Interventions Really Make a Difference? The Challenges of Efficacy Research. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 15, 1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Light, J., Binger, C., & Kelford-Smith, A. (1994). Story reading interactions between preschoolers who use AAC and their mothers. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 9, 255268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Light, J., & Kelford Smith, A. (1993). The home literacy experiences of preschoolers who use augmentative communication systems and their nondisabled peers. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 9, 1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Light, J., & McNaughton, D. (1993). Literacy and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC): The expectations and priorities of parents and teachers. Topics in Language Disorders, 13(2), 3346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lundberg, I., Frost, J., & Petersen, O. (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 263284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lundberg, I., & Hoien, T. (1991). Initial enabling knowledge and skills in reading acquisition: Print awareness and phonological segmentation. In Sawyer, D. E., & Fox, B. (Eds.), Phonological awareness. The evolution of the concept (pp. 7395). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
McNaughton, S. (1998). Reading acquisition of adults with severe congenital speech and physical impairments: Theoretical infrastructure, empirical investigation, educational application. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
Monfort, M. (1982). Registro Fonológico Inducido. Madrid: CEPE.Google Scholar
Morais, J., Alegría, J., & Content, A. (1987). The relationship between segmental analysis and alphabetic literacy: An interactive view. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 7, 415438.Google Scholar
Morton, J. (1969). The interaction of information in word recognition. Psychological Review, 76, 165178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morton, J. (1979a). Facilitation in word recognition: Experiments that cause changes in the logogen model. In Kolers, P., Wrolstad, M., & Bouma, H. (Eds.), Processing of visible language. Nueva York: Plenum.Google Scholar
Morton, J. (1979b). Word recognition. In Morton, J., & Marshall, J. C. (Eds.), Psycholinguistics Series 2: Structures and processes. London: Elek.Google Scholar
Newman, S., Fields, H., & Wright, S. (1993). A development study of specific spelling disability. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 287296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oakhill, J. (1982). Constructive processes in skilled and less-skilled comprehenders' memory for sentences. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 1320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olson, R. K., Wise, B., Conners, F. A., & Rack, J. P. (1990). Organization, heritability and alphabetic literacy: An interactive view. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 7, 415438.Google Scholar
Parker, L. G. (1987). Educational programming. In McDonald, E. (Ed.), Treating cerebral palsy: for clinicians by clinicians. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
Pascual-Leone, J. (1980). Constructive problem for constructive theories: the current relevance of Piaget's work and a critique of information processing simulation psychology. In Kluwe, R. H., & Spada, H. (Eds.), Developmental models of thinking. Londres: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Patterson, K., Marshall, J., & Coltheart, M. (1985). Surface dyslexia: Cognitive and neuropsychological studies of phonological reading. London: LEA.Google Scholar
Pierce, P., & McWilliams, P. (1993). Emerging literacy and children with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI): Issues and possible intervention strategies. Topics in Language Disorders, 13(2), 4757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puffpaff, L. (2009). A developmental continuum of phonological sensitivity skills. Psychology in the Schools, 46(7), 679691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rapala, M., & Brady, S. (1990). Reading ability and short-term memory: the role of phonological processing. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rueda, M. (1995). La lectura. adquisición, dificultades e intervención. Salamanca: Amarú.Google Scholar
Seidenberg, M. S. (1985). Explanatory adequacy and models of word recognition. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 724726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sevcik, R., Romski, M. A., & Adamson, L. (1999). Measuring AAC Interventionsfor Individuals with Severe Developmental Disabilities. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 15, 3844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siegel, L. (1994). Working memory and reading. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1, 109124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siegel, L., & Ryan, E. (1988). Development of gramatical-sensitivity, phonological, and short-term memory skills in normally achieving and learning disabled children. Developmental Psychology, 24(1), 2837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, M. M. (1989). Reading without speech: a study of children with cerebral palsy. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 10(4), 601614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, M. M. (1992a). Spelling abilities of nonspeaking students. (p. 168). Abstracts of the 1992 Biennial Conference Abstracts. Philadelphia. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 8(4), 110183.Google Scholar
Smith, M. M. (1992b). Reading abilities of nonspeaking students: Two case studies. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 8, 5766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, M. M. (2001). Simply a speech impairment? Literacy challenges for individuals with severe congenital speech impairments. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 48(4), 331353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, M. M. (2003). Literacy and Augmentative and Alternative Communication. London: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
Smith, M. M. (2009). Literacy and AAC. Effective assessment and intervention. Paper presented at the V Jornadas sobre Trastornos del Lenguaje Oral y Escrito. Universidad A Coruña, Spain.Google Scholar
Smith, M., & Blischak, D. (1997). Literacy. In Lloyd, L., Fuller, D., & Arvidson, H. (Eds.), Augmentative and Alternative Communication. A handbook of principles and practices. (pp. 414444). Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
Snowling, M. J. (1987). Dyslexia: A cognitive developmental perspective. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Snowling, M. J. (1991). Developmental reading disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 32, 4977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snowling, M. J., & Stackhouse, J. (1983). Spelling performance of children with developmental verbal dyspraxia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 25, 430437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sturm, J. M. (1998). Literacy development of AAC users. In Beukelman, D. R., & Mirenda, P. (Eds.), Augmentative and alternative communication: Management of severe communication disorders in children and adults. (pp. 355390). Baltimore: Paul Brookes.Google Scholar
Sturm, J. M. (2005). Literacy development of children who use AAC. In Beukelman, D. R., & Mirenda, P. (Eds.), Augmentative and alternative communication: Supporting children and adults with complex communication needs. (pp. 351389). Baltimore: Paul BrookesGoogle Scholar
Sturm, J. M., & Clendon, S. A. (2004). AAC, language, and literacy: Fostering the relationship. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(1), 7691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swan, D., & Goswami, U. (1997). Phonological awareness deficits in developmental dyslexia and the phonological representations hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66(1), 1841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, I., & Taylor, M. (1983). The Psychology of reading. New York: Academic Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Templeton, S., & Bear, D. (1992). Development of orthographic knowledge and the foundations of literacy: a memorial festschrift for Edmund H. Henderson. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.Google Scholar
Vandervelden, M. (2003, November). Skills related to written word learning: Assessment for people who use AAC. Paper presented in The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication.Google Scholar
Vandervelden, M., & Siegel, L. (1995). Phonological recoding and phoneme awareness in early literacy: A developmental approach. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 854875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandervelden, M., & Siegel, L. (1996). Phonological recoding deficits and dyslexia: A developmental perspective. In Beitchman, J. H., Cohen, N. J., Kostantareas, M. M., & Tannock, R. (Eds.), Language, learning, and behaviour disorders (pp. 224247). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Vandervelden, M., & Siegel, L. (1997). Teaching phonological processing skills in early literacy: A developmental approach. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 20, 6383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandervelden, M., & Siegel, L. (1999). Phonological processing and literacy in AAC users and students with motor speech impairments. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 15, 191211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandervelden, M., & Siegel, L. (2001). Phonological processing in written word learning: Assessment for children who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 17, 3751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vieiro, P. (2003). Adquisición y aprendizaje de la lectoescritura: Bases y principales alteraciones. In Puyuelo, M., & Rondal, J. A. (Eds.) Manual de desarrollo y alteraciones del lenguaje. Aspectos evolutivos y patología en el niño y el adulto (pp 283321). Barcelona: Masson.Google Scholar
Von Tetzchner, S., & Martinsen, H. (2000). Augmentative and alternative communication (2nd ed). London: Whurr.Google ScholarPubMed
Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101 (2), 192212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wechsler, D. (1977). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, (4th edition). Eskilstuna: Psykologiförlaget.Google Scholar
Wechsler, D. (1999). WAIS III. Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para adultos III. Madrid: TEA.Google Scholar
Yoder, D. E. (2001). Having my say. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 17(1), 210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yopp, H. K. (1988). The validity and reliability of phonemic awareness tests. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 159177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

An Exploratory Study of Phonological Awareness and Working Memory Differences and Literacy Performance of People that Use AAC
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

An Exploratory Study of Phonological Awareness and Working Memory Differences and Literacy Performance of People that Use AAC
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

An Exploratory Study of Phonological Awareness and Working Memory Differences and Literacy Performance of People that Use AAC
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *