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Equal Opportunities and Diversity: Exploring the Relevance of Le Grand's Models of Service Provision

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 November 2012

Martin Powell
School of Social Policy, University of Birmingham E-mail:
Nick Johns
School of Social Science, Cardiff University E-mail:
Alison Green
Graduate School, Glyndwr University E-mail:


The purpose of this article is to draw on Le Grand's (2007) model of service provision of ends and means (trust, targets, voice and choice) to critique the accepted frameworks for conceptualising the chronology of equal opportunities and diversity (EO&D) in the UK. We do this by reviewing the attempts to provide a chronological analysis before outlining and applying Le Grand's (2007) model. We find that the ‘eras’ of the chronologies give way to a much more complex and fluid picture. Moreover, focusing on ends and means highlights some major issues in the development of EO&D policy that needs to be addressed.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012 

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