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Seed afterripening and germination photoinhibition in the genus Crocus (Iridaceae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 August 2015

Evangelia Skourti
Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15784, Greece
Costas A. Thanos
Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15784, Greece
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Mediterranean characteristics are attributed to the genus Crocus, which is inadequately studied in terms of seed germination. An afterripening requirement is very common in environments with warm and dry periods, and photoinhibition has been detected in many angiosperms inhabiting dry and open areas. The effects of afterripening and light on seed germination were investigated for the first time in 23 native Greek Crocus taxa, collected from various localities with either a Mediterranean or a temperate climate. Germination experiments were conducted in continuous darkness and in light at the optimal temperature for each taxon, with both freshly collected and afterripened seeds; warm stratification (20°C, darkness) was also examined in 22 taxa. A number of selected taxa were additionally investigated with respect to afterripening outdoors, afterripening and warm stratification at higher temperatures (35 and 25°C, respectively), stratification at 20/10°C, dry storage at low temperatures, response to gibberellic acid and phenology of embryo growth. It was postulated that an afterripening requirement is a characteristic of the genus Crocus, and we found that it can be fulfilled in nature during the Mediterranean dry summer. Also, for the vast majority of the taxa, warm stratification and stratification at 20/10°C can both meet the afterripening requirement. Embryos of the taxa studied are underdeveloped and have to grow prior to germination. Intrageneric differences of seed germination were observed only towards light, with photoinhibition being predominant in taxa from drier environments.

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