Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-vbn2q Total loading time: 0.598 Render date: 2021-08-01T23:39:50.746Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Photoinhibition of seed germination: occurrence, ecology and phylogeny

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 May 2017

Angelino Carta
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Italy
Evangelia Skourti
Affiliation:
Department of Botany, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
Efisio Mattana
Affiliation:
Natural Capital and Plant Health Department, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK
Filip Vandelook
Affiliation:
Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium
Costas A. Thanos
Affiliation:
Department of Botany, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Light conditions provide important information about the best time and place for seedling establishment. Photoinhibition of seed germination (PISG), defined as the partial or complete suppression of germination under white light, has been interpreted as a physiological adaptation to avoid germination at or near the soil surface. This review is the first report of an all-inclusive, fully quantitative analysis of PISG in seed plants. Pertinent data available from the published literature for 301 taxa from 59 families and 27 orders were assessed. The association of PISG with several plant and seed traits allowed us to consider the adaptive significance of PISG in relation to plant life histories and the natural environments. As no gymnosperm has been found to be truly photoinhibited, it seems that PISG is apomorphic to flowering plants (especially monocots). Seeds of most taxa with PISG have a dark colour and intermediate mass, mostly in the range 1 to 27 mg. PISG is absent from humid tropical regions and from cold climates, but it is strongly associated with open, disturbed and dry habitats. An intriguing implication of PISG is the formation of a soil-surface seed bank. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that PISG is a physiological adaptation to avoid germination on the soil surface, where conditions are not suitable for seedling establishment. PISG is probably much more frequent in seed plants than previously thought. Thus, laboratory experiments should be conducted under well-characterized light and dark conditions.

Type
Review Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adair, J.A., Higgins, T.R. and Brandon, D.L. (1990) Effects of fruit burial depth and wrack on the germination and emergence of the strandline species Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 117, 138142. [1]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antonidaki-Giatromanolaki, A., Dragassaki, M., Papadimitriou, M. and Vlahos, I. (2008) Effects of stratification, temperature and light on seed germination of Colchicum macrophyllum B. L. Burtt. Propagation of Ornamental Plants 8, 105107. [2]Google Scholar
APG IV (2016) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arditti, J., Michaud, J.D. and Oliva, A.P. (1981) Seed germination of North American orchids. I. Native California and related species of Calypso, Epipactis, Goodyera, Piperia and Platanthera. Botanical Gazette 142, 442453. [3]Google Scholar
Balestri, E. and Cinelli, F. (2004) Germination and early-seedling establishment capacity of Pancratium maritimum L. (Amaryllidaceae) on coastal dunes in the north-western Mediterranean. Journal of Coastal Research 20, 761770. [4]Google Scholar
Bansal, R.P. and Sen, D.N. (1978) Contribution to the ecology and seed germination of Cucumis callosus . Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 13, 225233. [5]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbour, M.G. (1968) Germination requirements of the desert shrub Larrea divaricata . Ecology 49, 915923. [6]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbour, M.G. (1970) Germination and early growth of the strand plant Cakile maritima . Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 97, 1322. [7]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrero, J.M., Jacobsen, J.V., Talbot, M.J., White, R.G., Swain, S.M., Garvin, D.F. and Gubler, F. (2012) Grain dormancy and light quality effects on germination in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon . New Phytologist 193, 376386. [8]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (1988) Germination ecophysiology of herbaceous plant species in a temperate region. American Journal of Botany 75, 286305. [9]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (1994) Deep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the mesic woodland herb Delphinium tricorne (Ranunculaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 155, 738743. [10]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (2014) Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination (2nd edition). San Diego: Elsevier/Academic Press.Google Scholar
Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (1974) Some aspects of the autecology of Bupleurum rotundifolium in Tennessee cedar glades. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 49, 2124. [11]Google Scholar
Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (1979) The ecological life cycle of Nothoscordum bivalve in Tennessee cedar glades. Castanea 44, 193202. [12]Google Scholar
Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (1992) Seed germination biology of the weedy biennial Alliaria petiolata . Natural Areas Journal 12, 191197. [13]Google Scholar
Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (2004) A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research 14, 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batanouny, K.H. and Ziegler, H. (1971) Eco-physiological studies on desert plants II. Germination of Zygophyllum coccineum L. seeds under different conditions. Oecologia 8, 5263. [14]Google ScholarPubMed
Bell, D.T. and Bellairs, S.M. (1992) Effects of temperature on the germination of selected Australian native species used in the rehabilitation of bauxite mining disturbance in Western Australia. Seed Science and Technology 20, 4755. [15]Google Scholar
Bell, D.T., Plummer, J.A. and Taylor, S.K. (1993) Seed germination ecology in Southwestern Western Australia. The Botanical Review 59, 2473. [16]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, D.T., Rokich, D.P., McChesney, C.J. and Plummer, J.A. (1995) Effects of temperature, light and gibberellic acid on the germination of seeds of 43 species native to Western Australia. Journal of Vegetation Science 6, 797806. [17]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, D.T., King, L.A. and Plummer, J.A. (1999) Ecophysiological effects of light quality and nitrate on seed germination in species from Western Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 24, 210. [18]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benvenuti, S., Simonelli, G. and Macchia, M. (2001) Elevated temperature and darkness improve germination in Passiflora incarnata L. seed. Seed Science and Technology 29, 533541. [19]Google Scholar
Bewley, J.D. and Black, M. (1982) Physiology and Biochemistry of Seeds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [20]Google Scholar
Bond, W.J., Honig, M. and Maze, K.E. (1999) Seed size and seedling emergence: an allometric relationship and some ecological implications. Oecologia 120, 132136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bullowa, S., Negbi, M. and Ozeri, Y. (1975) Role of temperature, light and growth regulators in germination in Anemone coronaria L. Functional Plant Biology 2, 91100. [21]Google Scholar
Burrows, C.J. (1996) Germination behaviour of seeds of the New Zealand woody species Melicope simplex, Myoporum laetum, Myrsine divaricata and Urtica ferox . New Zealand Journal of Botany 34, 205213. [22]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bürün, B. and Sahin, O. (2009) In vitro and in vivo germination of Cyclamen alpinum seeds. Turkish Journal of Botany 33, 277283. [23]Google Scholar
Bussmann, R.W. and Lange, S. (2000) Germination of important East African mountain forest trees. Journal of East African Natural History 89, 101111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cain, S.A. (1950) Life forms and phytoclimate. The Botanical Review 16, 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, W.J. and Boucher, J.F. (1992) Germination and storage of Vinca seed is influenced by light, temperature, and relative humidity. HortScience 27, 993996. [24]Google Scholar
Carta, A., Probert, R., Moretti, M., Peruzzi, L. and Bedini, G. (2014) Seed dormancy and germination in three Crocus ser. Verni species (Iridaceae): implications for evolution of dormancy within the genus. Plant Biology 16, 10651074. [25]Google ScholarPubMed
Casal, J.J. and Sánchez, R.A. (1998) Phytochromes and seed germination. Seed Science Research 8, 317329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, S.S.C. (1968) Germination of light-inhibited seed of Nemophila insignis . American Journal of Botany 55, 11771183. [26]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, S.S.C. and Thimann, K.V. (1966) Nature of seed dormancy in Phacelia tanacetifolia . Science 153, 15371539. [27]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, Z.H. and Zhang, D.M. (1999) Seed germination and seedling growth of 24 tree species in lower subtropical forest. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 7, 3746. [28]Google Scholar
Christenhusz, M.J.M. and Byng, J.W. (2016) The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa 261, 201217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cirak, C., Kevseroğlu, K. and Sağlam, B. (2004) Physical and physiological dormancy in black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.) seeds. Journal of Plant Biology 47, 391395. [29]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, D.C. and Bass, L.N. (1970) Germination experiments with seeds of Indian ricegrass, Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roem. and Schult.) Ricker. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts of North America 60, 226239. [30]Google Scholar
Clarke, P.J., Davison, E.A. and Fulloon, L. (2000) Germination and dormancy of grassy woodland and forest species: effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold. Australian Journal of Botany 48, 687699. [31]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conner, A.J. and Conner, L.N. (1988) Germination and dormancy of Arthropodium cirratum seeds. New Zealand Natural Sciences 15, 310. [32]Google Scholar
Copete, E., Herranz, J.M., Copete, M.A., Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (2011) Non-deep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the Iberian Peninsula endemic geophyte Merendera montana (Colchicaceae). Seed Science Research 21, 267281. [33]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copete, E., Herranz, J.M., Copete, M.Á. and Ferrandis, P. (2014) Interpopulation variability on embryo growth, seed dormancy break, and germination in the endangered Iberian daffodil Narcissus eugeniae (Amaryllidaceae). Plant Species Biology 29, 7284. [34]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corbineau, F., and Côme, D. (1982) Effect of the intensity and duration of light at various temperatures on the germination of Oldenlandia corymbosa L. seeds. Plant Physiology 70, 15181520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corner, E.J.H. (1976) The Seeds of Dicotyledons, vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
CRETAPLANT (2007) CRETAPLANT: A Pilot Network of Plant Micro-Reserves in Western Crete. Action D.2: Ex situ conservation. [35]Google Scholar
Cruden, R.W. (1974) The adaptive nature of seed germination in Nemophila menziesii Aggr. Ecology 55, 12951305. [36]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalling, K.J. and Van Staden, J. (1999) Germination requirements of Combretum bracteosum seeds. South African Journal of Botany 65, 8385. [37]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daskalakou, E.N. and Thanos, C.A. (1995) Mechanisms of seed germination in Consolida ajacis. Abstracts of Poster Presentations, Fifth International Workshop on Seeds, Reading, UK. [38]Google Scholar
Datta, S.C. and Sinha-Roy, S.P. (1975) Germination-regulating mechanisms in aquatic angiosperms. II. Aeschynomene aspera L. Broteria 44, 8191. [39]Google Scholar
Daws, M.I., Gamene, C.S., Glidewel, S.M. and Pritchard, H.W. (2004) Seed mass variation potentially masks a single critical water content in recalcitrant seeds. Seed Science Research 14, 185195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daws, M.I., Crabtree, L.M., Dalling, J.W., Mullins, C.E. and Burslem, D.F.R.P. (2008) Germination responses to water potential in neotropical pioneers suggest large-seeded species take more risks. Annals of Botany 102, 945951.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Villiers, M.A.J., van Rooyen, M.W. and Theron, G.K. (2002a) Germination strategies of Strandveld Succulent Karoo plant species for revegetation purposes: I. Temperature and light requirements. Seed Science and Technology 30, 1733. [40]Google Scholar
de Villiers, M.A.J., van Rooyen, M.W. and Theron, G.K. (2002b) Germination strategies of Strandveld Succulent Karoo plant species for revegetation purposes: II. Dormancy-breaking treatments. Seed Science and Technology 30, 3549. [41]Google Scholar
De Vitis, M., Seal, C.E., Ulian, T., Pritchard, H.W., Magrini, S., Fabrini, G. and Mattana, E. (2014) Rapid adaptation of seed germination requirements of the threatened Mediterranean species Malcolmia littorea (Brassicaceae) and implications for its reintroduction. South African Journal of Botany 94, 4650. [42]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Debeaujon, I., Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M. and Koornneef, M. (2000) Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination, and longevity in Arabidopsis . Plant Physiology 122, 403413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Del Vecchio, S., Mattana, E., Acosta, A.T. and Bacchetta, G. (2012) Seed germination responses to varying environmental conditions and provenances in Crucianella maritima L., a threatened coastal species. Comptes Rendus Biologies 335, 2631. [43]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delipetrou, P. (1996) Ecophysiology of seed germination in maritime plants with emphasis on the action of light . PhD thesis, University of Athens, Greece [in Greek]. [44]Google Scholar
Dias, L.A.S., Kagheyama, P.Y. and Issiki, K. (1992) Qualidade de luz e germinacao de sementes de especies arboreas tropicais. Acta Amazonica 22, 7984. [45]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doğan, Y., Başlar, S. and Mert, H.H. (2002) A study on Reseda lutea L. distributed naturally in West Anatolia in Turkey. Acta Botanica Croatica 61, 3543. [46]Google Scholar
Doussi, M.A. and Thanos, C.A. (2002) Ecophysiology of seed germination in Mediterranean geophytes. 1. Muscari spp. Seed Science Research 12, 193201. [47]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dreesen, D.R. and Harrington, J.T. (1997) Propagation of native plants for restoration projects in the southwestern U.S. – preliminary investigations, pp. 7788 in Landis, T.D. and Thompson, J.R. (eds), National Proceedings, Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations. Portland: Pacific Northwest Research Station. [48]Google Scholar
Dumbroff, E.B. and Webb, D.P. (1970) Factors influencing the stratification process in seeds of Acer ginnala . Canadian Journal of Botany 48, 20092015. [49]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dutra, D., Johnson, T.R., Kauth, P.J., Stewart, S.L., Kane, M.E. and Richardson, L. (2008) Asymbiotic seed germination, in vitro seedling development, and greenhouse acclimatization of the threatened terrestrial orchid Bletia purpurea . Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 94, 1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dutra, D., Kane, M.E. and Richardson, L. (2009) Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Cyrtopodium punctatum: a propagation protocol for an endangered Florida native orchid. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 96, 235243. [50]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, D.G.W. and El-Kassaby, Y.A. (1996) The effect of stratification and artificial light on the germination of mountain hemlock seeds. Seed Science and Technology 24, 225236.Google Scholar
Ellis, R.H., Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H. (1986) The response of seeds of Bromus sterilis L. and Bromus mollis L. to white light of varying photon flux density and photoperiod. New Phytologist 104, 485496. [51]Google Scholar
Estrelles, E., Ferrando, I. and Ibars, A.M. (2004) Galanthus nivalis L.: germination requirements for a west Mediterranean population. Fourth European Conference on the Conservation of Wild Plants. A workshop on the implementation of the global strategy for plant conservation in Europe. Valencia, Spain, 17–20 September 2004. [52]Google Scholar
Felippe, G. M. and Polo, M. (1983) Germinação de ervas invasoras: efeito de luz e escarificação. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 6, 5560. [53]Google Scholar
Fenner, M. and Thompson, K. (2005) The Ecology of Seeds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferreira, A.G., Cassol, B., Rosa, S.G.T.D., Silveira, T.S.D., Stival, A.L. and Silva, A.A. (2001) Germination of seeds of Asteraceae natives of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 15, 231242. [54]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994+) Flora of China. http://www.efloras.org Google Scholar
Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993+). Flora of North America. http://www.efloras.org Google Scholar
Forbis, T.A. (2010) Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species. Plant Species Biology 25, 221230. [55]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fournaraki, C. (2010) Conservation of threatened plants of Crete: seed ecology, operation and management of a gene bank . PhD thesis, University of Athens, Greece [in Greek]. [56]Google Scholar
French, R.C. and Sherman, L.J. (1976) Factors affecting dormancy, germination, and seedling development of Aeginetia indica L. (Orobanchaceae). American Journal of Botany 63, 558570. [57]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fulbright, T.E., Redente, E.F. and Wilson, A.M. (1983) Germination requirements of green needlegrass (Stipa viridula Trin.). Journal of Range Management 36, 390394. [58]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garcia, Q.S. (1999) Germination ecology of Jacquinia brasiliensis, an endemic species of the Brazilian ‘restinga’, in relation to salinity. Tropical Ecology 40, 207212. [59]Google Scholar
Garcia, Q.S. and Lucas, N.M.C. (1994) Germinative behaviour of Jacquinia brasiliensis seeds. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 17, 1318. [60]Google Scholar
Georghiou, K., Thanos, C.A., Tafas, T.P. and Mitrakos, K. (1982) Tomato seed germination. Osmotic pretreatment and far red inhibition. Journal of Experimental Botany 33, 10681075. [61]Google Scholar
Goldthwaite, J.J., Bristol, J.C., Gentile, A.C. and Klein, R.M. (1971) Light-suppressed germination of California poppy seed. Canadian Journal of Botany 49, 16551659. [62]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Górski, T. and Górska, K. (1979) Inhibitory effects of full daylight on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. Planta 144, 121124. [63]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greipsson, S. and Davy, A.J. (1994) Germination of Leymus arenarius and its significance for land reclamation in Iceland. Annals of Botany 73, 393401. [64]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greipsson, S. and Davy, A.J. (1996) Aspects of seed germination in the dune-building grass Leymus arenarius . Buvisindi 10, 209217. [65]Google Scholar
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.A., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A.G., Neal, A.M. and Shaw, S. (1981) A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69, 10171059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutterman, Y. (1996) Effect of day length during plant development and caryopsis maturation on flowering and germination, in addition to temperature during dry storage and light during wetting, of Schismus arabicus (Poaceae) in the Negev Desert, Israel. Journal of Arid Environments 33, 439448. [66]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutterman, Y. (2006) Deserts and arid lands, pp. 122127 in Black, M., Bewley, J.D. and Halmer, P. (eds), The Encyclopedia of Seeds: Science, Technology and Uses. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
Gutterman, Y., Kamenetsky, R. and Van Rooyen, M. (1995) A comparative study of seed germination of two Allium species from different habitats in the Negev Desert highlands. Journal of Arid Environments 29, 305315. [67]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammouda, M.A. and Bakr, Z.Y. (1969) Some aspects of germination of desert seeds. Phyton (Austria) 13, 183201. [68]Google Scholar
Hamze, S.I. and Jolls, C.L. (2000) Germination ecology of a federally threatened endemic thistle, Cirsium pitcheri, of the Great Lakes. The American Midland Naturalist 143, 141153. [69]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harty, R.L. and McDonald, T.J. (1972) Germination behaviour in beach spinifex (Spinifex hirsutus Labill.). Australian Journal of Botany 20, 241251. [70]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvais, G. and Hadley, G. (1967) The development of Orchis purpurella in asymbiotic and inoculated cultures. New Phytologist 66, 217230. [71]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, T.S., Walck, J.L. and Hidayati, S.N. (2011) Seed ecology of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) as it relates to rarity of the species 1. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 138, 298307. [72]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinricher, E. (1903) Notwendigkeit des Lichtes und befordernde Wirkung desselben bei der Samenkeimung. Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt 13, 164172.Google Scholar
Herranz, J.M., Ferrandis, P. and Martínez-Duro, E. (2010) Seed germination ecology of the threatened endemic Iberian Delphinium fissum subsp. sordidum (Ranunculaceae). Plant Ecology 211, 89106. [73]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herranz, J.M., Copete, M.A. and Ferrandis, P. (2013) Environmental regulation of embryo growth, dormancy breaking and germination in Narcissus alcaracensis (Amaryllidaceae), a threatened endemic Iberian daffodil. The American Midland Naturalist 169, 147167. [74]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herranz, J.M., Copete, E. and Ferrandis, P. (2013) Non-deep complex morphophysiological dormancy in Narcissus longispathus (Amaryllidaceae): implications for evolution of dormancy levels within section Pseudonarcissi . Seed Science Research 23, 141155. [75]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrranz Sanz, J.M.H., Carreño, E.C., Carreño, M.Á.C. and Gotor, P.F. (2015) Germination ecology of the endemic Iberian daffodil Narcissus radinganorum (Amaryllidaceae). Dormancy induction by cold stratification or desiccation in late stages of embryo growth. Forest Systems 24, e-013. [76]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilton, J.R. (1982) An unusual effect of the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome: Photoinhibition of seed germination in Bromus sterilis L. Planta 155, 524528. [77]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huber, H. (1969) Die Samenmerkmale und Verwandtschaftsverhaltnisse der Liliifloren. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 8, 219538.Google Scholar
Jankowska-Blaszczuk, M. and Daws, M.I. (2007) Impact of red:far red ratios on germination of temperate forest herbs in relation to shade tolerance, seed mass and persistence in the soil. Functional Ecology 21, 10551062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, B., Olivares, E., Henríquez, C. and Fernandez, H. (1997) Factores abióticos en la germinación de terófitas de interés forrajero. Phyton (Buenos Aires) 60, 6371. [78]Google Scholar
Joly, C.A. and Felippe, G.M. (1979) Germinação e fenologia de Zeyhera digitalis (Vell.) Hoehne. Hoehnea 8, 3540. [79]Google Scholar
Jones, M.B. and Bailey, L.F. (1956) Light effects on the germination of seeds of henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.). Plant Physiology 31, 347349. [80]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jurado, E. and Flores, J. (2005) Is seed dormancy under environmental control or bound to plant traits? Journal of Vegetation Science 16, 559564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kadis, C.C. (1995) Reproductive biology of the strictly protected plants of Cyprus . PhD thesis, University of Athens, Greece [in Greek]. [81]Google Scholar
Kadis, C.C. and Georghiou, K. (1992) The germination physiology of the endangered plants of Cyprus, Alyssum akamasicum and Origanum cordifolium. p. 461 in Côme, D. and Corbineau, F. (eds), Book of abstracts from the 4th International Workshop on Seeds. Angers, France. [82]Google Scholar
Kamenetsky, R. and Gutterman, Y. (2000) Germination strategies of some Allium species of the subgenus Melanocrommyum from arid zone of Central Asia. Journal of Arid Environments 45, 6171. [83]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keeley, J.E. and Bond, W.J. (1997) Convergent seed germination in South African fynbos and Californian chaparral. Plant Ecology 133, 153167. [84]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keith, D.A. (1997) Combined effects of heat shock, smoke and darkness on germination of Epacris stuartii Stapf., an endangered fire-prone Australian shrub. Oecologia 112, 340344. [85]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendrick, R.E. and Frankland, B. (1969) Photocontrol of germination in Amaranthus caudatus . Planta 85, 326339. [86]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khan, M.A. and Ungar, I.A. (1997) Effects of light, salinity, and thermoperiod on the seed germination of halophytes. Canadian Journal of Botany 75, 835841. [87]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kier, G., Mutke, J., Dinerstein, E., Ricketts, T.H., Küper, W., Kreft, H. and Barthlott, W. (2005) Global patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge. Journal of Biogeography 32, 11071116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinzel, W. (1913–1926) Frost und Licht als beeinflussende Kräfte bei der Samenkeimung. 1st edition 1913, 2nd edition 1915, 3rd edition 1920, 4th edition 1926. Stuttgart: Ulmer.Google Scholar
Koller, D. (1955) Germination regulating mechanisms in some desert seeds. II. Zygophyllum dumosum Boiss. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel 4, 381387. [88]Google Scholar
Koller, D. (1956) Germination regulating mechanisms in some desert seeds. III. Calligonum comosum L'Her. Ecology 37, 430433. [89]Google Scholar
Koller, D. (1957) Germination-regulating mechanisms in some desert seeds. IV. Atriplex dimorphostegia Kar. et Kir. Ecology 38, 213. [90]Google Scholar
Koller, D., Poljakoff-Mayber, A., Berg, A. and Diskin, T. (1963) Germination-regulating mechanisms in Citrullus colocynthis . American Journal of Botany 50, 597603. [91]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koller, D., Sachs, M. and Negbi, M. (1964) Spectral sensitivity of seed germination in Artemisia monosperma . Plant and Cell Physiology 5, 7984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kondo, T., Mikubo, M., Yamada, K., Walck, J.L. and Hidayati, S.N. (2011) Seed dormancy in Trillium camschatcense (Melanthiaceae) and the possible roles of light and temperature requirements for seed germination in forests. American Journal of Botany 98, 215226. [92]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kondo, T., Narita, M., Phartyal, S.S., Hidayati, S.N., Walck, J.L., Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (2015) Morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Convallaria keiskei and a proposal to recognize two types of double dormancy in seed dormancy classification. Seed Science Research 25, 210220. [93]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kosiński, I. (2008) Long-term variability in seed size and seedling establishment of Maianthemum bifolium . Plant Ecology 194, 149156. [94]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kulkarni, M.G., Sparg, S.G., Van Staden, J. and Berjak, P. (2005) Seed germination of valuable high-altitude medicinal plants of southern Africa. South African Journal of Botany 71, 173178. [95]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kulkarni, M.G., Sparg, S.G. and Van Staden, J. (2006) Dark conditioning, cold stratification and a smoke-derived compound enhance the germination of Eucomis autumnalis subsp. autumnalis seeds. South African Journal of Botany 72, 157162. [96]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kullmann, W.H. (1982) Seed Germination Records of Western Australian Plants. West Perth: Kings Park and Botanic Garden. [97]Google Scholar
Kumar, L.S.S. and Solomon, S. (1940) The influence of light on the germination of species of Striga . Current Science 9, 541. [98]Google Scholar
Lai, L., Chen, L., Jiang, L., Zhou, J., Zheng, Y. and Shimizu, H. (2016) Seed germination of seven desert plants and implications for vegetation restoration. AoB Plants 8, plw031. [99]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leishman, M.R., Wright, I.J., Moles, A.T. and Westoby, M. (2000) The evolutionary ecology of seed size, pp. 3157 in Fenner, M. (ed), Seeds: the Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities. Wallingford: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lesica, P. (1992) Autecology of the endangered plant Howellia aquatilis; implications for management and reserve design. Ecological Applications 2, 411421. [100]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, X.J., Burton, P.J., and Leadem, C.L. (1994) Interactive effects of light and stratification on the germination of some British Columbia conifers. Canadian Journal of Botany 72, 16351646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lopez, J., Devesa, J.A., Ruiz, T. and Ortega-Olivencia, A. (1999) Seed germination in Genisteae (Fabaceae) from south-west Spain. Phyton (Austria) 39, 107129. [101]Google Scholar
Lorenzi, H. (1998) Arvores Brasileiras: Manual de Identificacao e Cultivo de Plantas Arboreas Nativas do Brasil, vol. 1. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora, Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo. [102]Google Scholar
Malik, N. and Vanden Born, W.H. (1987) Germination response of Galium spurium L. to light. Weed Research 27, 251258. [103]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mamut, J., Tan, D.Y., Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (2014) Intermediate complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the cold desert sand dune geophyte Eremurus anisopterus (Xanthorrhoeaceae; Liliaceae s.l.). Annals of Botany 114, 991999. [104]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marques, I. and Draper, D. (2012) Seed germination and longevity of autumn-flowering and autumn-seed producing Mediterranean geophytes. Seed Science Research 22, 299309. [105]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mattana, E., Daws, M.I. and Bacchetta, G. (2010) Comparative germination ecology of the endemic Centranthus amazonum (Valerianaceae) and its widespread congener Centranthus ruber . Plant Species Biology 25, 165172. [106]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maun, M.A. and Payne, A.M. (1989) Fruit and seed polymorphism and its relation to seedling growth in the genus Cakile . Canadian Journal of Botany 67, 27432750. [107]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maun, M.A., Boyd, R.S. and Olson, L. (1990) The biological flora of coastal dunes and wetlands. 1. Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. Journal of Coastal Research 6, 137156. [108]Google Scholar
Maze, K.M. and Whalley, R.D.B. (1992) Germination, seedling occurrence and seedling survival of Spinifex sericeus R. Br. (Poaceae). Australian Journal of Ecology 17, 189194. [109]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonough, W.T. (1967) Dormant and non-dormant seeds: similar germination responses when osmotically inhibited. Nature 214, 11471148. [110]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medeiros Filho, S., França, E.A.D. and Innecco, R. (2002) Seeds germination of Operculina macrocarpa (L.) Farwel and Operculina alata (Ham.) Urban. Revista Brasileira de Sementes 24, 102107. [111]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milberg, P. (1994) Germination ecology of the endangered grassland biennial Gentianella campestris . Biological Conservation 70, 287290. [112]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milberg, P., Andersson, L. and Thompson, K. (2000) Large-seeded spices are less dependent on light for germination than small-seeded ones. Seed Science Research 10, 99104. [113]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, E. (1926) Germination of seeds of plants native to Dutchess County, New York. Botanical Gazette 81, 108112. [114]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mollard, F.P.O. and Naeth, M.A. (2014) Photoinhibition of germination in grass seed – implications for prairie revegetation. Journal of Environmental Management 142, 19. [115]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moyo, M., Kulkarni, M.G., Finnie, J.F. and Van Staden, J. (2009) After-ripening, light conditions, and cold stratification influence germination of marula [Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro] seeds. HortScience 44, 119124. [116]Google Scholar
Nakamura, S., Okasako, Y. and Yamada, E. (1955) Effect of light on the germination of vegetable seeds. Engei References Gakkai Zasshi 24, 1728 [in Japanese]. [117]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Navarro, L. and Guitian, J. (2003) Seed germination and seedling survival of two threatened endemic species of the northwest Iberian Peninsula. Biological Conservation 109, 313320. [118]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neveur, N., Corbineau, F. and Côme, D. (1986) Some characteristics of Cyclamen persicum L. seed germination. Journal of Horticultural Science 61, 379387. [119]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newton, R.J., Hay, F.R. and Ellis, R.H. (2015) Ecophysiology of seed dormancy and the control of germination in early spring-flowering Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus (Amaryllidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 177, 246262. [120]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noronha, A., Vicente, M. and Felippe, G.M. (1978) Photocontrol of germination of Cucumis anguria L. Biologia Plantarum 20, 281286. [121]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ochuodho, J.O. and Modi, A.T. (2007) Light-induced transient dormancy in Cleome gynandra L. seeds. African Journal of Agricultural Research 2, 587591. [122]Google Scholar
Okagami, N. and Kawai, M. (1982) Dormancy in Dioscorea: differences of temperature responses in seed germination among six Japanese species. Botanical Magazine Tokyo 95, 155166. [123]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okusanya, O.T. (1979) An experimental investigation into the ecology of some maritime cliff species: II. Germination studies. Journal of Ecology 67, 293304. [124]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliva, A.P., and Arditti, J. (1984) Seed germination of North American orchids. II. Native California and related species of Aplectrum, Cypripedium, and Spiranthes. Botanical Gazette 145, 495501.Google Scholar
Oliver, L.R., Harrison, S.A. and McClelland, M. (1983) Germination of Texas gourd (Cucurbita texana) and its control in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Science 31, 700706. [125]Google Scholar
Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D'Amico, J.A., Itoua, I., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Ricketts, T.H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J.F., Wettengel, W.W., Hedao, P. and Kassem, K.R. (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51, 933938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pamukov, K. and Schneider, M.J. (1978) Light inhibition of Nigella germination: the dependence of a high irradiance reaction on 720-nm irradiance. Botanical Gazette 139, 5659. [126]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patterson, T.B. and Givnish, T.J. (2002) Phylogeny, concerted convergence, and phylogenetic niche conservatism in the core Liliales: insights from rbcL and ndhF sequence data. Evolution 56, 233252.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearson, T.R.H., Burslem, D.F.R.P., Mullins, C.E. and Dalling, J.W. (2002) Germination ecology of Neotropical Pioneers: interacting effects of environmental conditions and seed size. Ecology 83, 27982807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pimenta, M.R., Fernandes, L.S., Pereira, U.J., Garcia, L.S., Leal, S.R., Leitão, S.G., Salimena, F.R.G., Viccini, L.F. and Peixoto, P.H.P. (2007) Floração, germinação e estaquia em espécies de Lippia L. (Verbenaceae). Brazilian Journal of Botany 30, 211220. [127]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pirovano, L., Morgutti, S., Espen, L. and Cocucci, S.M. (1996) Differences in transcription products and in translation and enzymatic activities during the early stages of imbibition of Phacelia tanacetifolia seeds with germination inhibited by light. Physiologia Plantarum 96, 714721. [128]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pirovano, L., Morgutti, S., Espen, L. and Cocucci, S.M. (1997) Differences in the reactivation process in thermosensitive seeds of Phacelia tanacetifolia with germination inhibited by high temperature (30°C). Physiologia Plantarum 99, 211220. [129]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pons, T.L. (2000) Seed responses to light, pp. 237260 in Fenner, M. (ed), Seeds: the Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities (2nd edition). Wallingford: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pritchard, H.W. and Manger, K.R. (1990) Quantal response of fruit and seed germination rate in Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill, to constant temperatures and photon dose. Journal of Experimental Botany 41, 15491557. [185]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pritchard, H.W., Wood, J.A. and Manger, K.R. (1993) Influence of temperature on seed germination and the nutritional requirements for embryo growth in Arum maculatum L. New Phytologist 123, 801809. [130]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pritchard, H.W., Daws, M.I., Fletcher, B.J., Gamene, C.S., Msanga, H.P. and Omondi, W. (2004) Ecological correlates of seed desiccation tolerance in tropical African dryland trees. American Journal of Botany 91, 863870. [131]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pujol, B., Gigot, G., Laurent, G., Pinheiro-Kluppel, M., Elias, M., Hossaert-McKey, M. and McKey, D. (2002) Germination ecology of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) in traditional agroecosystems: seed and seedling biology of a vegetatively propagated domesticated plant. Economic Botany 56, 366379. [132]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R Development Core Team. (2015) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available from http://www.Rproject.org/ Google Scholar
Rangaswamy, N.S. and Rangan, T.S. (1966) Effects of seed germination-stimulants on the witch-weed Striga euphrasioides (Vahl) Benth. Nature 210, 440441. [133]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Remer, W. (1904) Der Einfluss des Lichtes auf die Keimung bei Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 22, 328339.Google Scholar
Rivera, R.L. and Freeman, C.E. (1979) The effects of some alternating temperatures on germination of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata [D.C.] Cov.: Zygophyllaceae). The Southwestern Naturalist 24, 683714. [134]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rollin, M.P. (1958) Action qualitative de la lumiere sur la germination des graines de Phacelia tanacetifolia . Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 247, 14841487. [135]Google Scholar
Rollin, P. and Maignan, G. (1967) Phytochrome and the photoinhibition of germination. Nature 214, 741742. [136]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ronnenberg, K., Wesche, K., Pietsch, M. and Hensen, I. (2007) Seed germination of five mountain steppe species of Central Asia. Journal of Arid Environments 71, 404410. [137]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosa, S.G.T. and Ferreira, A.G. (1997) Germination of medicinal plant: Smilax campestris Griseb. (Salsaparrilha). Acta Horticulturae 502, 105112. [138]Google Scholar
Roy, M., Gonneau, C., Rocheteau, A., Berveiller, D., Thomas, J.-C., Damesin, C. and Selosse, M.-A. (2013) Why do mixotrophic plants stay green? A comparison between green and achlorophyllous orchid individuals in situ. Ecological Monographs 83, 95117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016) Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1. Available from: http://data.kew.org/sid/ (accessed April 2016).Google Scholar
Sacheti, U. (1998) Germination responses of some coastal dune plants of SE Australia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 39, 243253. [139]Google Scholar
Santo, A., Mattana, E., Frigau, L. and Bacchetta, G. (2014) Light, temperature, dry after-ripening and salt stress effects on seed germination of Phleum sardoum (Hackel) Hackel. Plant Species Biology 29, 300305. [140]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santo, A., Mattana, E., and Bacchetta, G. (2015) Inter- and intra-specific variability in seed dormancy loss and germination requirements in the Lavatera triloba aggregate (Malvaceae). Plant Ecology and Evolution 148, 100110. [141]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santos, C.M.R., Ferreira, A.G. and Aquilla, M.E.A. (2004) Caracteristicas de frutos e germinacao de sementes de seis especies de Myrtaceae nativas do Rio Grande do Sul. Ciência Florestal 14, 1320. [142]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schütz, W. and Rave, G. (1999) The effect of cold stratification and light on the seed germination of temperate sedges (Carex) from various habitats and implications for regenerative strategies. Plant Ecology 144, 215230. [143]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schütz, W., Milberg, P. and Lamont, B.B. (2002) Seed dormancy, after-ripening and light requirements of four annual Asteraceae in south-western Australia. Annals of Botany 90, 707714. [144]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwienbacher, E., Navarro-Cano, J.A., Neuner, G. and Erschbamer, B. (2011) Seed dormancy in alpine species. Flora 206, 845856. [145]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Semclimed (2006) Prácticas de germinación en los bancos de semillas de la red GENMEDOC. Electronic publication by the network Semclimed: www.reteribes.it/scaricatore.asp?c=x6bg4twnvd8pkgtz86asquvz7 [146]Google Scholar
Sen, D.N. (1968) Ecology of desert plants and observations on their seedlings. II. Germination behaviour of seeds in Asclepiadaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 115, 1827. [147]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheikh, K.H. and Mahmood, K. (1986) Some studies on field distribution and seed germination of Suaeda fruticosa and Sporobolus arabicus with reference to salinity and sodicity of the medium. Plant and Soil 94, 333340. [148]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shimono, Y. and Kudo, G. (2005) Comparisons of germination traits of alpine plants between fellfield and snowbed habitats. Ecological Research 20, 189197. [149]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shtein, I., Noy-Porat, T. and Eshel, A. (2014) Effects of light, temperature and nitrogen on Scilla hyacinthoides germination and seedling development. Seed Science and Technology 42, 113125. [150]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva, A.D. and Aguiar, I.D. (1998) Germinação de sementes de canela-preta (Ocotea catharinensis Mez-Lauraceae) sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura. Revista do Instituto Florestal 10, 1722. [151]Google Scholar
Skourti, E. and Thanos, C.A. (2015) Seed afterripening and germination photoinhibition in the genus Crocus (Iridaceae). Seed Science Research 25, 306320. [152]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skourti, E., Delipetrou, P. and Georgiou, K. (2009) Contribution to the study of the role of light in the germination of the seeds of endemic or threatened maritime plants, p. 153 in Doussi, M. and Thanos, C.A. (eds), Book of Abstracts from the 11th Panhellenic Scientific Conference of the Hellenic Botanical Society. Athens, University of Athens. [153]Google Scholar
Slade, E.A. and Causton, D.R. (1979) The germination of some woodland herbaceous species under laboratory conditions: a multifactorial study. New Phytologist 83, 549557. [154]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, A.L. (1972) Factors influencing germination of Scolochloa festucacea caryopses. Canadian Journal of Botany 50, 20852092. [155]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spessard, L.L. (1988) Seed-germination studies of Psoralea esculenta Pursh (Indian turnip) and Psoralea argophylla Pursh (silver scurfpea). Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 16, 123126. [156]Google Scholar
Stahnke, A., Hayes, M., Meyer, K., Witt, K., Weideman, J., Fernando, A.P., Burrows, R. and Reese, R.N. (2008) Prairie turnip Pediomelum esculentum (Pursh) Rydb., historical and modern use, propagation, and management of a new crop. Native Plants Journal 9, 4758. [157]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stefanello, R., Garcia, D.C., Menezes, N.D., Muniz, M.F.B. and Wrasse, C.F. (2006) Efeito da luz, temperatura e estresse hídrico no potencial fisiológico de sementes de funcho. Revista Brasileira de Sementes 28, 135141. [158]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since].Google Scholar
Suñé, A.D. and Franke, L.B. (2006) Superação de dormência e metodologias para testes de germinação em sementes de Trifolium riograndense Burkart e Desmanthus depressus Humb. Revista Brasileira de Sementes 28, 2936. [159]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takagi, K., Okazawa, A., Wada, Y., Mongkolchaiyaphruek, A., Fukusaki, E., Yoneyama, K., Takeuchi, Y. and Kobayashi, A. (2009) Unique phytochrome responses of the holoparasitic plant Orobanche minor . New Phytologist 182, 965974. [160]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takhtajan, A. (1986) Floristic Regions of the World. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Taylorson, R.B. (1991) Inhibition of the germination in Amaranthus albus seeds by prolonged irradiation: a physiological basis. Seed Science Research 1, 5156. [161]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tester, M. and Morris, C. (1987) The penetration of light through soil. Plant, Cell and Environment 10, 281286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thanos, C.A. (1993) Germination and the high irradiance reaction, pp. 187190 in Hendry, G.A.F. and Grime, J.P. (eds), Methods in Comparative Plant Ecology. A Laboratory Manual. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
Thanos, C.A. and Mitrakos, K. (1992) WaIermelon seed germination. 1. Effects of light, temperature and osmotica. Seed Science Research 2, 155162. [162]Google Scholar
Thanos, C.A., Georghiou, K. and Skarou, F. (1989) Glaucium flavum seed germination – an ecophysiological approach. Annals of Botany 63, 121130. [163]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thanos, C.A., Georghiou, K., Douma, D.J. and Marangaki, C.J. (1991) Photoinhibition of seed germination in Mediterranean maritime plants. Annals of Botany 68, 469475. [164]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thanos, C.A., Georghiou, K. and Delipetrou, P. (1994) Photoinhibition of seed germination in the maritime plant Matthiola tricuspidata . Annals of Botany 73, 639644. [165]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thanos, C.A., Fournaraki, C. and Makri, N. (2005) Photoinhibition of seed germination: ecology, phylogeny and presumptive mechanisms, p. 44 in Book of Abstracts from the 8th International Workshop on Seeds, May 2005, Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
Thanos, C.A., Fournaraki, C., Tsiroukis, A. and Panayiotopoulos, P. (2010) Timing of seed germination and life history of trees: case studies from Greece, pp. 103–111 in Chien, C.T. and Chen, F.H. (eds), IUFRO Tree Seed Symposium: Recent Advances in Seed Research and ex situ Conservation. Taipei, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. [166]Google Scholar
Thompson, K., Grime, J.P. and Mason, G. (1977) Seed germination in response to diurnal fluctuations of temperature. Nature 267, 147149. [167]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tobe, K., Zhang, L. and Omasa, K. (2006) Seed germination and seedling emergence of three Artemisia species (Asteraceae) inhabiting desert sand dunes in China. Seed Science Research 16, 6169. [168]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, S.R., Merritt, D.J., Baskin, C.C., Dixon, K.W. and Baskin, J.M. (2005) Physical dormancy in seeds of six genera of Australian Rhamnaceae. Seed Science Research 15, 5158. [169]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. and Webb, D.A. (1964) Flora Europaea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1964–1980).Google Scholar
Tweddle, J.C., Dickie, J.B., Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (2003) Ecological aspects of seed desiccation sensitivity. Journal of Ecology 91, 294304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Válio, I.F. and Scarpa, F.M. (2001) Germination of seeds of tropical pioneer species under controlled and natural conditions. Brazilian Journal of Botany 24, 7984. [170]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Breemen, A.M.M. (1984) Comparative germination ecology of three short-lived monocarpic Boraginaceae. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 33, 283305. [171]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van der Kinderen, G. (1995) A method for the study of field germinated seeds of terrestrial orchids. Lindleyana 10, 6873.Google Scholar
Van Deynze, A.E., Beversdorf, W.D. and Pauls, K.P. (1993) Temperature effects on seed color in black-and yellow-seeded rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 73, 383387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Rooden, J., Akkermans, L.M.A. and Van Der Veen, R. (1970) A study on photoblastism in seeds of some tropical weeds. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 19, 257264. [172]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandelook, F., Verdú, M. and Honnay, O. (2012) The role of seed traits in determining the phylogenetic structure of temperate plant communities. Annals of Botany 110, 629636.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vazquez-Yanes, C., Orozco-Segovia, A., Rincon, E., Sanchez-Coronado, M.D., Huante, P., Toledo, J.R. and Barradas, U.L. (1990) Light beneath the litter in a tropical forest: effect on seed germination. Ecology 71, 19521958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waes, J.V. and Debergh, P.C. (1986) In vitro germination of some Western European orchids. Physiologia Plantarum 67, 253261. [173]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walck, J.L. and Hidayati, S.N. (2004) Differences in light and temperature responses determine autumn versus spring germination for seeds of Schoenolirion croceum . Canadian Journal of Botany 82, 14291437. [174]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, J.H., Baskin, C.C., Cui, X.L. and Du, G.Z. (2009) Effect of phylogeny, life history and habitat correlates on seed germination of 69 arid and semi-arid zone species from northwest China. Evolutionary Ecology 23, 827846. [175]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watanabe, H., Kusagaya, Y. and Saigusa, M. (2002) Environmental factors affecting germination of apple of Peru. Weed Science 50, 152156. [176]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiersbye, I.M. and Witkowski, E.T.F. (2002) Seed fate and practical germination methods for 46 perennial species that colonize gold mine tailings and acid mine drainage-polluted soils in the grassland biome, pp. 221255 in Seydack, A.H.W., Vorster, T., Vermeulen, W.J. and van der Merwe, I.J. (eds), Multiple Use Management of Natural Forests and Woodlands: Policy Refinements and Scientific Progress. South Africa, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. [177]Google Scholar
Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase – the Western Australian Flora. Department of Parks and Wildlife. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/ Google Scholar
Westoby, M. (1998) A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme. Plant and Soil 199, 213227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widell, K.O. and Vogelman, T.C. (1988) Fiber optic studies of light gradient and spectral regime within Lactuca sativa achenes. Physiologia Plantarum 72, 706712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willis, C.G., Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M., Auld, J.R., Venable, D.L., Cavender-Bares, J., Donohue, K. and Rubio de Casas, R. (2014) The evolution of seed dormancy: environmental cues, evolutionary hubs, and diversification of the seed plants. New Phytologist 203, 300309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaniv, Z. and Mancinelli, A.L. (1968) Phytochrome and seed germination. IV. Action of light sources with different spectral energy distribution on the germination of tomato seeds. Plant Physiology 43, 117120. [178]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zaman, A.U., Khan, M.A. (1992) The role of buried viable seeds in saline desert plant community. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 21, 110. [180]Google Scholar
Zeng, Y.-J., Wang, Y.-R., Zhang, B.-L. and Li, B.-E. (2000) Eco-adaptability studies of seed germination in species of Reaumuria soongorica and Oxytropis aciphylla . Acta Prataculturae Sinica 9, 3642. [179]Google Scholar
Zettler, L.W., and McInnis, T.M. Jr (1994) The effect of white light on the symbiotic seed germination of an endangered orchid, Platanthera integrilabia . Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin 41, 129.Google Scholar
Zhang, L.-X., Lan, Q.-Y., Li, H.-T., Tan, Y.-H., Guan, Y.-H. and Li, X.-L. (2011) Developmental changes in relation to desiccation tolerance and storage characteristics of Aquilaria sinensis (Thymelaeaceae) seeds. Plant Diversity 33, 458464. [181]Google Scholar
Zhang, R., Wang, Y.R., Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C., Luo, K. and Hu, X.W. (2016) Germination and persistence in soil of the dimorphic diaspores of Atriplex centralasiatica . Seed Science Research 26, 273283. [182]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheng, Y., Gao, Y., An, P., Shimizu, H. and Rimmington, G.M. (2004) Germination characteristics of Agriophyllum squarrosum . Canadian journal of Botany 82, 16621670. [183]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zucareli, V., Henrique, L.A.V. and Ono, E.O. (2015) Influence of light and temperature on the germination of Passiflora incarnata L. seeds. Journal of Seed Science 37, 162167. [184]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Carta supplementary material

Table S1

Download Carta supplementary material(File)
File 54 KB
26
Cited by