Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-65dc7cd545-rzhp5 Total loading time: 0.226 Render date: 2021-07-24T18:30:59.958Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Lipid mobilization, gluconeogenesis and ageing-related processes in dormant walnut kernels during moist chilling and warm incubation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2009

Tahereh Nezamdoost
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
Fatemeh Tamaskani
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
Ahmad Abdolzadeh
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
Hamid Reza Sadeghipour
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
Corresponding

Abstract

To understand the beneficial effects of cold conditions during the alleviation of dormancy of walnut (Juglans regia L.), lipid mobilization, gluconeogenesis and changes related to ageing were compared in dormant kernels incubated in the cold and under deteriorating warm conditions. Stratifying kernels at 5°C for 30 d enhanced their germination capacity, whereas warm-incubated (27°C) kernels turned rancid after 20 d and had reduced germination. Kernel imbibition was sufficient to bring about lipid mobilization, irrespective of temperature of incubation. Although imbibed kernels displayed high isocitrate lyase activity, starch and soluble sugar accumulation occurred only under cold conditions. Deteriorative 64 kDa fatty acyl-ester hydrolase activity declined in cold-stratified kernels. Cold treatment also led to reduced lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide in kernels. The activity of NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase, an NADPH-generating enzyme, declined in warm-incubated kernels. Thus, warm-incubated kernels undergo ageing associated with oxidative stress, but there are beneficial effects of cold stratification in preventing deteriorative ageing-related processes. Imbibition is sufficient to allow lipid mobilization to occur in dormant walnut kernels, although cold stratification accompanied by gluconeogenesis is essential for kernel germination.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Andriotis, V.M.E., Smith, S.B. and Ross, J.D. (2004) Phytic acid mobilization is an early response to chilling of the embryonic axes from dormant oilseed of hazel (Corylus avellana L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 537545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradford, M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, R.D., Le Marechal, P., Vidal, H., Jacquot, J.P. and Gadal, P. (1988) Purification and comparative properties of the cytosolic iso-citrate dehydrogenases (NADP) from pea (Pisum sativum) roots and green leaves. European Journal of Biochemistry 175, 565572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chia, T.Y.P., Pike, M.J. and Rawsthorne, S. (2005) Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 12851296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, T.G. and Beevers, H. (1969) Mitochondria and glyoxysomes from castor bean endosperm. Enzyme constituents and catalytic capacity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 244, 35073513.Google Scholar
Corbineau, F., Bianco, J., Garello, G. and Côme, D. (2002) Breakage of Pseudotsuga menziesii seed dormancy by cold treatment as related to changes in seed ABA sensitivity and ABA levels. Physiologia Plantarum 114, 313319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corpas, F.J., Barroso, J.B., Sandalio, L.M., Palma, J.M., Lupianez, J.A. and del Rio, L.A. (1999) Peroxisomal NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. characterization and activity regulation during natural senescence. Plant Physiology 121, 921928.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska, A. (1989) Degradation of protein and lipid bodies during dormancy removal in apple seeds. Journal of Plant Physiology 135, 4351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
del Rio, L.A., Corpas, F.J., Sandalio, L.M., Palma, J.M., Gomez, M. and Barroso, J.B. (2002) Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant systems and nitric oxide in peroxisomes. Journal of Experimental Botany 53, 12551272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Downie, B. and Bewley, J.D. (2000) Soluble sugar content of white spruce (Picea glauca) seeds during and after germination. Physiologia Plantarum 110, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du, Z. and Bramlage, W.J. (1992) Modified thiobarbituric acid assay for measuring lipid oxidation in sugar-rich plant tissue extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40, 15661570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eastmond, P.J. and Graham, I.A. (2001) Re-examining the role of the glyoxylate cycle in oil seeds. Trends in Plant Science 6, 7277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eastmond, P.J., Germain, V., Lange, P.R., Bryce, J.H., Smith, S.M. and Graham, I.A. (2000) Postgerminative growth and lipid catabolism in oilseeds lacking the glyoxylate cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97, 56695674.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Einali, A.R. and Sadeghipour, H.R. (2007) Alleviation of dormancy in walnut kernels by moist chilling is independent from storage protein mobilization. Tree Physiology 27, 519525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Forward, B.S., Tranbarger, T.J. and Misra, S. (2001) Characterization of proteinase activity in stratified Douglas-fir seeds. Tree Physiology 21, 625629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gabriel, O. (1971) Locating enzymes on gels. Methods in Enzymology 22, 578604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handel, E.V. (1968) Direct microdetermination of sucrose. Analytical Biochemistry 22, 280283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hara, A. and Radin, N.S. (1978) Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Analytical Biochemistry 90, 420426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hodges, M., Flesch, V., Galvez, S. and Bismuth, E. (2003) Higher plant NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, ammonium assimilation and NADPH production. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41, 577585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hong, Y., Wang, T.W., Hudak, K.A., Schade, F., Froese, C.D. and Thompson, J.E. (2000) An ethylene-induced cDNA encoding a lipase expressed at the onset of senescence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97, 87178722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobsen, J.V., Pearce, D.W., Poole, A.T., Pharis, R.P. and Mander, L.N. (2002) Abscisic acid, phaseic acid and gibberellin contents associated with dormancy and germination in barley. Physiologia Plantarum 115, 428441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jana, S. and Choudhuri, M.A. (1981) Glycolate metabolism of three submerged aquatic angiosperms during aging. Aquatic Botany 12, 342354.Google Scholar
Kaur, R., Sharma, N., Kumar, K., Sharma, D.R. and Sharma, S.D. (2006) In vitro germination of walnut (Juglans regia L.) embryos. Scientia Horticulturae 109, 385388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, S.Y. and Park, J.W. (2003) Cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative damage by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. Free Radical Research 37, 309316.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewak, S., Bogatek, R. and Zarska-Maciejewska, B. (2000) Sugar metabolism in apple embryos. pp. 4755in Viemont, J.D.; Crabbe, J. (Eds) Dormancy in plants. Wallingford, CAB International.Google Scholar
Li, L. and Ross, J.D. (1988) Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in seeds of Corylus avellana. Phytochemistry 27, 19771980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, L. and Ross, J.D. (1990a) Lipid mobilization during dormancy breakage in oilseed of Corylus avellana. Annals of Botany 66, 50505.Google Scholar
Li, L. and Ross, J.D. (1990b) Starch synthesis during dormancy breakage in oilseed of Corylus avellana. Annals of Botany 66, 507512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCready, R.M., Guggolz, J., Silviera, V. and Owens, H.S. (1950) Determination of starch and amylose in vegetables. Analytical Chemistry 22, 11561158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, M.B. (1999) Seed deterioration: Physiology, repair and assessment. Seed Science and Technology 27, 177237.Google Scholar
McDonald, M.B. (2004) Orthodox seed deterioration and its repairs. pp. 273304in Benech-Arnold, R.L.; Sanchez, R.A. (Eds) Handbook of seed physiology. New York, Haworth Press.Google Scholar
Miller, G.L. (1959) Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugars. Analytical Chemistry 31, 426428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noland, T.L. and Murphy, J.B. (1984) Changes in isocitrate lyase activity and ATP content during stratification and germination of sugar pine seeds. Seed Science and Technology 12, 777787.Google Scholar
Palomo, J., Gallardo, F., Suarez, M.F. and Canovas, F.M. (1998) Purification and characterization of NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from Scots pine. Plant Physiology 118, 617629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pastori, G.M. and del Rio, L.A. (1997) Natural senescence of pea leaves: an activated oxygen-mediated function for peroxisomes. Plant Physiology 113, 411418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, J.D. (1984-) Metabolic aspects of dormancy. pp. 4575in Murray, D.R. (Ed.) Seed physiology. Volume 2. Germination and reserve mobilization. Sydney, Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanchez-Zamora, M.A., Cos-Terrer, J., Frutos-Tomas, D. and Garcia-Lopez, R. (2006) Embryo germination and proliferation in vitro of Juglans regia L. Scientia Horticulturae 108, 317321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage, G.P., McNeil, D.L. and Dutta, P.C. (2001) Some nutritional advantages of walnuts. Acta Horticulturae 544, 557563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitz, N., Abrams, S.R. and Kermode, A.R. (2002) Changes in ABA turnover and sensitivity that accompany dormancy termination of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany 53, 89101.Google ScholarPubMed
Tammela, P., Hopia, A., Hiltunen, R., Vuorela, H. and Nygren, M. (2000) Aging in Pinus sylvestris L. seeds: changes in viability and lipids. Biochemical Society Transactions 28, 878879.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teissere, M., Borel, M., Caillol, B., Nari, J., Gardies, A.M. and Noat, G. (1995) Purification and characterization of a fatty acyl-ester hydrolase from post-germinated sunflower seeds. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1255, 105112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, J., Taylor, C. and Wang, T.W. (2000) Altered membrane lipase expression delay leaf senescence. Biochemical Society Transactions 28, 775777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tian, J., Bryk, R., Itoh, M., Suematsu, M. and Nathan, C. (2005) Variant tricarboxylic acid cycle in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Identification of α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 102, 1067010675.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, B.S.P. and Berjak, P. (2000) Beneficial effects of moist chilling on the seeds of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.). Annals of Botany 86, 2936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winkler, U.K. and Stuckmann, M. (1979) Glycogen, hyaluronate and some other polysaccharides greatly enhance the formation of exolipase by Serratia marcescens. Journal of Bacteriology 138, 663670.Google ScholarPubMed
Zarska-Maciejewska, B. (1992) Lipolytic activity during dormancy removal in apple seeds. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 30, 6570.Google Scholar
8
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Lipid mobilization, gluconeogenesis and ageing-related processes in dormant walnut kernels during moist chilling and warm incubation
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Lipid mobilization, gluconeogenesis and ageing-related processes in dormant walnut kernels during moist chilling and warm incubation
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Lipid mobilization, gluconeogenesis and ageing-related processes in dormant walnut kernels during moist chilling and warm incubation
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *