Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-wzw2p Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-26T03:09:32.741Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Design of Automated Robotic System for Draping Prepreg Composite Fabrics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 April 2020

L.-P. Ellekilde
Affiliation:
University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230Odense M, Denmark E-mails: lpe@mmmi.sdu.dk, own@mmmi.sdu.dk, gunu@mmmi.sdu.dk, thss@mmmi.sdu.dk, hgp@mmmi.sdu.dk
J. Wilm
Affiliation:
Technical University of Denmark, Building 321, 2800Lyngby, Denmark, E-mails: jakw@dtu.dk, mohan@dtu.dk, aanes@dtu.dk
O. W. Nielsen
Affiliation:
University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230Odense M, Denmark E-mails: lpe@mmmi.sdu.dk, own@mmmi.sdu.dk, gunu@mmmi.sdu.dk, thss@mmmi.sdu.dk, hgp@mmmi.sdu.dk
C. Krogh
Affiliation:
Aalborg University, Fibigerstræde 16, 9220Aalborg Ø, Denmark E-mails: ck@m-tech.aau.dk, joj@m-tech.aau.dk, morten@m-tech.aau.dk, jag@m-tech.aau.dk
E. Kristiansen*
Affiliation:
Aalborg University, Fibigerstræde 16, 9220Aalborg Ø, Denmark E-mails: ck@m-tech.aau.dk, joj@m-tech.aau.dk, morten@m-tech.aau.dk, jag@m-tech.aau.dk
G. G. Gunnarsson
Affiliation:
University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230Odense M, Denmark E-mails: lpe@mmmi.sdu.dk, own@mmmi.sdu.dk, gunu@mmmi.sdu.dk, thss@mmmi.sdu.dk, hgp@mmmi.sdu.dk
T. S. Stenvang
Affiliation:
University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230Odense M, Denmark E-mails: lpe@mmmi.sdu.dk, own@mmmi.sdu.dk, gunu@mmmi.sdu.dk, thss@mmmi.sdu.dk, hgp@mmmi.sdu.dk
J. Jakobsen
Affiliation:
University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230Odense M, Denmark E-mails: lpe@mmmi.sdu.dk, own@mmmi.sdu.dk, gunu@mmmi.sdu.dk, thss@mmmi.sdu.dk, hgp@mmmi.sdu.dk
M. Kristiansen
Affiliation:
Aalborg University, Fibigerstræde 16, 9220Aalborg Ø, Denmark E-mails: ck@m-tech.aau.dk, joj@m-tech.aau.dk, morten@m-tech.aau.dk, jag@m-tech.aau.dk
J. A. Glud
Affiliation:
Aalborg University, Fibigerstræde 16, 9220Aalborg Ø, Denmark E-mails: ck@m-tech.aau.dk, joj@m-tech.aau.dk, morten@m-tech.aau.dk, jag@m-tech.aau.dk
M. Hannemose
Affiliation:
Technical University of Denmark, Building 321, 2800Lyngby, Denmark, E-mails: jakw@dtu.dk, mohan@dtu.dk, aanes@dtu.dk
H. Aanæs
Affiliation:
Technical University of Denmark, Building 321, 2800Lyngby, Denmark, E-mails: jakw@dtu.dk, mohan@dtu.dk, aanes@dtu.dk
J. de Kruijk
Affiliation:
Netherlands Aerospace Centre, Voorsterweg 31, 8316 PR Marknesse, The Netherlands E-mail: joachim.de.kruijk@nlr.nl
I. Sveidahl
Affiliation:
RoboTool A/S,Vestermarksvej 10, 6600Vejen, Denmark E-mail: is@robotool.com
A. Ikram
Affiliation:
Terma Aerostructures A/S, Fabrikvej 1, 8500Grenaa, Denmark E-mail: aik@terma.com
H. G. Petersen
Affiliation:
University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230Odense M, Denmark E-mails: lpe@mmmi.sdu.dk, own@mmmi.sdu.dk, gunu@mmmi.sdu.dk, thss@mmmi.sdu.dk, hgp@mmmi.sdu.dk
*
*Corresponding author. E-mail: ewa@m-tech.aau.dk
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Summary

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

This paper presents a novel solution for precision draping of prepreg composite fabrics onto double curved molds. Our contributions relate to system design, including hardware and software components, and to system integration. On the hardware side, design and implementation of a drape tool with up to 120 suction cups positioned individually by linear actuators are described. On the software side, design and implementation of the software architecture are presented, along with necessary algorithms within sensor technologies and mathematical modeling. The essential system’s components were verified individually, and the entire integrated system was successfully validated in the Proof-of-Concept experiments, performed on an experimental physical model of the system.

Type
Articles
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

References

Lukaszewicz, D. H. J., Ward, C. and Potter, K. D., “The engineering aspects of automated prepreg layup: History, present and future,” Composites Part B 43(3), 9971009 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molfino, R., Zoppi, M., Cepolina, F., Yousef, J. and Cepolina, E. E., “Design of a Hyper-Flexible Cell for Handling 3D Carbon Fiber Fabric,” Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Theoretical. Mechanics and Applied Mechanics (TMAM’14). Venice, Italy, pp. 165170. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/da24/dbc48c622c8037b3188229bed051bf1734f7.pdf.Google Scholar
Björnsson, A. and Johansen, K., “Automated material handling in composite manufacturing using pick-and-place systems review,” Robotics Comput. Integr. Manuf. 51, 222229 (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.rcim.2017.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kordi, M. T., Husing, M. and Corves, B., “Development of a Multifunctional Robot End-Effector System for Automated Manufacture of Textile Preforms,” Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerngross, T. and Nieberl, D., “Automated manufacturing of large, three-dimensional CFRP parts from dry textiles,” CEAS Aeronaut J. 7, 241257 (2016). DOI: 10.1007/s13272-016-0184-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Förster, F., Ballier, F., Coutandin, S., Defranceski, A. and Fleischer, J., “Manufacturing of Textile Preforms with an Intelligent Draping and Gripping System,” Proceedings of the 1st Cirp Conference on Composite Materials Parts Manufacturing (Elsevier) 66, 39–44 (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardiner, G., “Automated preforming: Intelligent automation in pick-and-place systems,” CompositesWorld (2017); 10/22.Google Scholar
Gardiner, G., “Improving one-piece aerostructures by automating preforming,” CompositesWorld (2017); 1/15.Google Scholar
Angerer, A., Ehinger, C., Hoffmann, A., Reif, W. and Reinhart, G., “Design of an Automation System for Preforming Processes in Aerospace Industries,” Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (IEEE). DOI: 10.1109/CASE.2011.6042411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehinger, C. and Reinhart, G., “Robot-based automation system for the flexible preforming of single-layer cut-outs in composite industry,” Product. Eng. Res. Dev. 8, 559565 (2014). DOI: 10.1007/s11740-014-0546-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sterk, S., “Low Cost Automated Manufacturing of an A320 Slat Fairing,” Proceedings of SAMPE Europe SEICO 2014 - 35th International Technical Conference & Forum, Paris, France.Google Scholar
Campbell, K., “Tsb Affordable Composites Manufacturing - Grand Challenge,” Presentation at ACCIS Annual Conference (2012). http://www.axillium.com/i-composites/sites/default/files/i-Composites%20-%20Picking%20and%20Placing%20of%20Dry%20Fibre.pdf.Google Scholar
Quigley, M., Gerkey, B., Conley, K., Faust, J., Foote, T., Leibs, J., Berger, E., Wheeler, R. and Ng, A., “Ros: An Open-Source Robot Operating System,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) Workshop on Open Source Robotics, Kobe, Japan (2009). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d45e/aee8b2e047306329e5dbfc954e6dd318ca1e.pdf?_ga=2.240291008.2127394806.1587036108-362228064.1578833333.Google Scholar
Van Der Ween, F., “Algorithms for draping fabrics on doubly-curved surfaces,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 31(7), 14151426 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, T., Bargteil, A., O’Brien, J. and Kavan, L., “Fast simulation of mass-spring systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 32(6), Article 214 (2013). DOI: 10.1145/2508363.2508406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, O. W., Schlette, C. and Petersen, H. G., “Fast and Simple Model for Free Hanging, Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fibre Material,” Icinco 2018 (2018) pp. 7–14.Google Scholar
Gereke, T., Döbrich, O., Hübner, M. and Cherif, C., “Experimental and computational composite textile reinforcement forming: A review,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 46(1), 110 (2013). DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2012.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cao, J., Akkerman, R., Boisse, P., Chen, J., Cheng, H. S., de Graaf, E. F., Gorczyca, J. L., Harrison, P., Hivet, G., Launay, J., Lee, W., Liu, L., Lomov, S. V., Long, A., de Luycker, E., Morestin, F., Padvoikis, J., Peng, X. Q., Sherwood, J., Stoilova, T. Z., Tao, X. M., Verpoest, I., Willems, A., Wiggers, J., Yu, T. X. and Zhu, B., “Characterization of mechanical behavior of woven fabrics: experimental methods and benchmark results,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 39(6), 10371053 (2008). DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2008.02.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krogh, C., Glud, J. A. and Jakobsen, J., “Modeling the robotic manipulation of woven carbon fiber prepreg plies onto double curved molds: A path dependent problem,” J. Compos. Materials 53(15), 21492164 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, R. M., Li, Z. and Sastry, S. S., A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation. 1 ed. (CRC Press, 1994). ISBN 9780849379819.Google Scholar
Minguzzi, E., “Rayleigh’s dissipation function at work,” Eur. J. Phys. 36(3), 035014 (2015). doi: 10.1088/0143-0807/36/3/035014. 1409.4041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsden, J.E. and West, M., “Discrete mechanics and variational integrators,” Acta Numerica 10, 357514 (2001). DOI: 10.1017/S096249290100006X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bauchau, O. A. and Laulusa, A., “Review of contemporary approaches for constraint enforcement in multibody systems,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn. 3(1), 011005 (2008). DOI: 10.1115/1.2803258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kühmstedt, P., Munckelt, C., Heinze, M., Bräuer-Burchardt, C. and Notni, G., “3D Shape Measurement with Phase Correlation Based Fringe Projection,” Proceedings of SPIE 6616. DOI: 10.1117/12.726119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eiríksson, E. R., Wilm, J., Pedersen, D. B. and Aanæs, H., “Precision and Accuracy Parameters in Structured Light 3-d Scanning,” International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. XL-5/W8 (2016) pp. 7–15. DOI: 10.5194/isprs-archives-XL-5-W8-7-2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reich, C., Ritter, R. and Thesing, J., “White Light Heterodyne Principle for 3D-measurement,” SPIE 3100, Sensors, Sensor Systems, and Sensor Data Processing, vol. 3100 (1997) pp. 236244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palfinger, W., Thumfart, S. and Eitzinger, C., “Photometric Stereo on Carbon Fiber Surfaces,” 35th Workshop of the Austrian Association for Pattern Recognition.Google Scholar

Ellekilde et al. supplementary material

Ellekilde et al. supplementary movie

Download Ellekilde et al. supplementary material(Video)
Video 27.1 MB