Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 August 2009
Part of the Heritage bequeathed by the Habsburg Empire to the First and Second Austrian Republics was German ethnic nationalism. The movement was a response to what its adherents considered the difficulty of preserving German cultural practices and institutional patterns within a state composed of diverse nationalities. Challenged by the growth of nationalism among the other linguistic and ethnic groups of the Habsburg lands during the latter half of the nineteenth century and stimulated by the appearance of a German national state after 1871, Austro-Germanism grew in size and diversity until 1914. In its more moderate form, the persuasion went no further than stubborn resistance of German Austrians to any cultural or political concessions to non-Germans in the Empire. In the hands of the rabid Pan-Germanist Georg von Schonerer, it was a frankly subversive ideology dedicated to the detachment of the German sections of Austria from the Danubian monarchy and their fusion with imperial Germany.
1 Simon, Walter, “The Political Parties of Austria” (unpublished dissertation, Columbia University, 1957), pp. 62–64.Google Scholar
3 Hiscocks, Richard, The Re-Birth of Austria (New York, 1953), pp. 64–65;Google ScholarSchwarz, Robert, “Austrian Neo-Nazism,” Carnegie Tech Quarterly, I (1960), 13;Google ScholarVodopivec, Alexander, “Die Funktion der Opposition,” in Zwanzig Jahre Zweite Republik, ed. Reichhold, Ludwig (Vienna, 1965), p. 69;Google ScholarStiefbold, Rodney, et al., eds., Wahlen und Parteien in Österreich (3 vols.; Vienna, 1966), II, 108.Google Scholar
4 For a full exposition of NPD ideology see the party's Manifesto, Politik in unserer Zeit: das Manifest der NPD mit Erläuterungen (Hannover, 1967)Google Scholar and its most recent publication, NPD: Weg, Wille und Ziel(Hannover, 1967).Google ScholarThe November congress of the party was reported in Die Zeit (Hamburg), 11 17, 1967, p. 9Google Scholar and The New York Times, 11 12, 1967, p. 26. An article by the present author, “Protest on the Right: the NPD in Recent German Politics,” will appear in a forthcoming issue of Orbis.Google Scholar
5 Der Spiegel (Hamburg), 07 17, 1967, p.87; Politik, pp. 6–7. The Austrian ND's position has been further elaborated in a mimeographed sketch of a program entitled “Vorläufige Fassung der Grundsätze der Nationaldemokratischen Partei (NDP)” which was sent upon the author's request this pastsummer. The sender was Dr. Wilfried Würl of Wels who has been active in the organization of the party in Upper Austria.Google Scholar
9 Richert, Fritz, Die Rationale Welle (Stuttgart, 1966), p. 45; Politik, pp. 35–37.Google ScholarNPD literature makes no mention of the agreements between Hitler and Stalin to effect the removal of the German population from Eastern Europe, a process which was well under way before the end of World War II. Nor is much emphasis placed upon the agreement of October 21, 1939, between the German dictator and Mussolini arranging the evacuation of the Germanspeaking population from the South Tyrol, something which the South Tyroleans never supported in any great numbers.Google ScholarSee Schechtman, Joseph, European Population Transfers 1939–1945 (New York, 1946), pp. 39–40, 43, 59, 60–61.Google ScholarOn the evacuation of Germans from Eastern Europe after 1945,Google Scholarsee Kertesz, Stephen D., “The Expulsion of the Germans from Hungary: a Study in Post-War Diplomacy,” Review of Politics, XV (1953), pp. 179–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar and Schechtman, Joseph, “Post-War Population Transfers in Europe: a Survey,” Review of Politics, XV (1953), pp. 151–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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