Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gq7q9 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T13:08:50.315Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Embodying Devotion: Multisensory Encounters with Donatello's Crucifix in S. Croce

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 December 2020

Geraldine A. Johnson*
Affiliation:
University of Oxford

Abstract

The reception of art is often described in ocularcentric terms, but all five senses could engage devotional objects in late medieval and early modern Europe. This article explores this phenomenon by considering a wooden crucifix with movable arms made by Donatello for the Franciscan church of S. Croce in Florence in the early fifteenth century. It makes new suggestions about the work's original location, its possible patrons, and its functions and reception, especially during the rituals associated with Good Friday. It also reflects on the challenges scholars face when taking a multisensory approach to premodern visual and material culture.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. Published by the Renaissance Society of America

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Many thanks to colleagues who invited me to present parts of this article at the Victoria and Albert Museum, University of York, Renaissance Society of America conference, and College Art Association conference. I am also grateful for the helpful suggestions made by Andrew Chen, Peter Dent, Ena Giurescu Heller, Sarah McNamer, Michèle Mulchahey, Elizabeth Pilliod, Peter Stiberc, and Renaissance Quarterly's reviewers, and to Marcia Hall for kindly allowing me to rework two of her drawings. This article is dedicated to my parents, R. Stanley Johnson and Ursula Gustorf Johnson.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Albertini, Francesco. Memoriale di molte statue et picture sono nella inclyta cipta di Florentia di Francesco Albertini (1510). Ed. De Boer, Waldemar H. and Kwakkelstein, Michael W.. Florence: Centro Di, 2010.Google Scholar
Anuidi, Odoardo. “Prove di nobilità del Conte Giovan Paolo Rimbaldesi.” Rivista del Collegio Araldico 14 (1916): 426–31.Google Scholar
Baert, Barbara. A Heritage of Holy Wood: The Legend of the True Cross in Text and Image. Trans. Preedy, Lee. Leiden: Brill, 2004.Google Scholar
Baldassarri, Stefano U. “Lorenzo Ghiberti e Giovan Battista Gelli tra autobiografia e biografia.” Viator 43 (2012): 299313.Google Scholar
Baxandall, Michael. Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy: A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.Google Scholar
Baxandall, Michael. The Limewood Sculptors of Renaissance Germany. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
Becherucci, Luisa, and Brunetti, Giulia. Il Museo dell'Opera del Duomo a Firenze. Venice: Electa Editrice, 1971.Google Scholar
Bellandi, Alfredo. “Scultore prossimo a Donatello: ‘Crocifisso.’” In “Fece di scoltura di legname e colorì” (2016), 176–77.Google Scholar
Belting, Hans. Das Bild und sein Publikum im Mittelalter: Form und Funktion früher Bildtafeln der Passion. Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1981.Google Scholar
Belting, Hans. Bild und Kult: Eine Geschichte des Bildes vor dem Zeitalter der Kunst. Munich: Beck, 1990.Google Scholar
Bennett, Jill. “Stigmata and Sense Memory: St Francis and the Affective Image.” Art History 24.1 (2001): 116.10.1111/1467-8365.00247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernardi, Claudio. La Drammaturgia della Settimana Santa in Italia. Milan: Vita e Pensiero, 1991.Google Scholar
Bernardi, Claudio. “‘Theatrum Pietatis’: Images, Devotion, and Lay Drama.” Mediaevalia 27.1 (2006): 722.Google Scholar
Bino, Carla. “Le statue del Cristo crocifisso e morto nelle azioni drammatiche della Passione (XIV–XV secolo): Linee di ricerca.” Drammaturgia 13.3 (2017): 277311.Google Scholar
Bocchi, Francesco. The Beauties of the City of Florence: A Guidebook of 1591. Ed. Frangenberg, Thomas and Williams, Robert. London: Harvey Miller, 2006.Google Scholar
Bornstein, Daniel Ethan. The Bianchi of 1399: Popular Devotion in Late Medieval Italy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Brooks, Neil C. The Sepulchre of Christ in Art and Liturgy, with Special Reference to the Liturgic Drama. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1921.Google Scholar
Browe, Peter. Die Pflichtkommunion im Mittelalter. Münster: Regensbergsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1940.Google Scholar
Brucker, Gene A. Florentine Politics and Society, 1343–1378. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
Bulgarelli, Massimo. “La cappella Cardini.” In All'ombra delle volte: Architettura del Quattrocento a Firenze e Venezia, ed. Bulgarelli, Massimo and Ceriana, Matteo, 13103. Milan: Electa, 1996.Google Scholar
Burnett, Amy Nelson. “The Social History of Communion and the Reformation of the Eucharist.” Past and Present 211 (2011): 77119.Google Scholar
Caglioti, Francesco. “The Bosco ai Frati Crucifix and Its Position in Respect of Those of Donatello and Brunelleschi.” In Mugello culla del Rinascimento (2008a), 125–63.Google Scholar
Caglioti, Francesco. “Il ‘Crocifisso’ ligneo di Donatello per i Servi di Padova.Prospettiva: Rivista di storia dell'arte antica e moderna 130–31 (2008b): 50106.Google Scholar
Caglioti, Francesco. “I tre Crocifissi grandi di Donatello.” In Donatello svelato: Capolavori a confronto; Il Crocifisso di Santa Maria dei Servi a Padova e il suo restauro, ed. Nante, Andrea and Mercalli, Marica, 3964. Venice: Marsilio, 2015.Google Scholar
Caglioti, Francesco, Cavazzini, Laura, Galli, Aldo, and Rowley, Neville. “Reconsidering the Young Donatello.” Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 57 (2015): 1545.Google Scholar
Cannon, Joanna. Religious Poverty, Visual Riches: Art in the Dominican Churches of Central Italy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Carl, Doris. “Die Kruzifixe des Taddeo Curradi in der Kirche der SS. Concezione zu Florenz.” Mitteilungen des kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 28.3 (1984): 394401.Google Scholar
Cattin, Giulio. “Testi melici e organizzazione rituale nella processione fiorentina di ‘depositio’ secondo il manoscritto 21 dell'Opera di S. Maria del Fiore.” In Dimensioni Drammatiche della Liturgia Medioevale, 243–65. Viterbo: Bulzoni Editore, 1977.Google Scholar
Cavazzini, Laura. “Donato di Niccolò Bardi, detto Donatello: ‘Crocifisso.’” In Mugello culla del Rinascimento (2008), 164–68.Google Scholar
Chen, Andrew. “Flagellant Confraternities: Image and Experience in Ritual Context, 1260–1530.” PhD diss., University of Cambridge, 2016.Google Scholar
Christiansen, Keith, ed. From Filippo Lippi to Piero Della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Conti, Alessandro. “Frammenti pittorici in Santa Croce.” Paragone Arte 19.225 (1968): 1020.Google Scholar
Cooper, Donal. “‘In Medio Ecclesiae’: Screens, Crucifixes and Shrines in the Franciscan Church Interior in Italy, c. 1230–c. 1400.” 2 vols. PhD diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, 2000.Google Scholar
Cooper, Donal. “Franciscan Choir Enclosures and the Function of Double-Sided Altarpieces in Pre-Tridentine Umbria.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 64 (2001): 154.Google Scholar
Cooper, Donal. “Projecting Presence: The Monumental Cross in the Italian Church Interior.” In Presence: The Inherence of the Prototype within Images and Other Objects, ed. Shepherd, Rupert and Maniura, Robert, 4769. Farnham: Ashgate, 2006.Google Scholar
Cooper, Donal. “Redefining the Altarpiece in Early Renaissance Italy: Giotto's Stigmatization of Saint Francis and Its Pisan Contexts.” Art History 36.4 (2013): 686713.Google Scholar
Corazza, Bartolommo di Michele del. “Diario fiorentino di Bartolommeo di Michele del Corazza, Anni 1405–1438 (ed. G.O. Corazzini).” Archivio storico italiano 14, ser. 5 (1894): 233–98.Google Scholar
Corbin, Solange. La deposition liturgique du Christ au vendredi saint; sa place dans l'histoire des rites et du théâtre religieux (analyse de documents portugais). Paris: Société d’éditions “Les Belles lettres,” 1960.Google Scholar
Dean, Jeffrey. “Listening to Sacred Polyphony c. 1500.” Early Music 25.4 (1997): 611–36.Google Scholar
De Francovich, Géza “L'orgine e la diffusione del Crocifisso Gotico Doloroso.” Kunstgeschichtliches Jahrbuch der Bibliotheca Hertziana 2 (1938): 143261.Google Scholar
De Marchi, Andrea. “‘Cum dictum opus sit magnum’: Il documento pistoiese del 1274 e l'allestimento trionfale dei tramezzi in Umbria e Toscana fre Due e Trecento.” In Medioevo: Immagine e memoria, ed. Quintavalle, Arturo Carlo, 603–21. Milan: Electa, 2009.Google Scholar
De Marchi, Andrea. “Relitti di un naufragio: Affresci di Giotto, Taddeo Gaddi e Maso di Banco nella navate di Santa Croce.” In Santa Croce: Oltre le apparenze, ed. Marchi, Andrea De and Piraz, Giacomo, 3271. Pistoia: Gli Ori, 2011.Google Scholar
Dent, Peter. “The Body of Christ in Fourteenth-Century Tuscan Sculpture.” PhD diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, 2005.Google Scholar
Dent, Peter. “Contemplative Relief: Meditating on Christ through Sculptural Form in Early Trecento Italy.” In Depth of Field: Relief Sculpture in Renaissance Italy, ed. Cooper, Donal and Leino, Marika, 4169. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2007.Google Scholar
Dugan, Holly. The Ephemeral History of Perfume: Scent and Sense in Early Modern England. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
“Fece di scoltura di legname e colorì”: Scultura del Quattrocento in legno dipinto a Firenze. Ed. Bellandi, Alfredo. Florence: Giunti, 2016.Google Scholar
Fisher, Annika Elisabeth. “Cross Altar and Crucifix in Ottonian Cologne: Past Narrative, Present Ritual, Future Resurrection.” In Decorating the Lord's Table: On the Dynamics between Image and Altar in the Middle Ages, ed. Thunø, Erik and Kaspersen, Søren, 4362. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum, 2006.Google Scholar
Frugoni, Chiara. “Female Mystics, Visions, and Iconography.” In Women and Religion in Medieval and Renaissance Italy, ed. Bornstein, Daniel and Rusconi, Roberto, 130–64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.Google Scholar
Galli, Aldo. “Donatello: ‘Crocifisso.’” In “Fece di scoltura di legname e colorì” (2016), 162–63.Google Scholar
Garnett, Jane, and Rosser, Gervase. Spectacular Miracles: Transforming Images in Italy from the Renaissance to the Present. London: Reaktion Books, 2013.Google Scholar
Gell, Alfred. Art and Agency: An Anthropological Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.Google Scholar
Gentilini, Giancarlo, ed. I Della Robbia e l'arte nuova della scultura invetriata. Florence: Giunti, 1998.Google Scholar
Ghisi, Federico. “Un processionale inedito per la Settimana Santa nell'Opera del Duomo di Firenze.” Rivista musicale italiana 55 (1953): 363–69.Google Scholar
Giura, Giovanni. “Il ‘Crocifisso’ di Donatello e la cappella del Beato Gherardo da Villamagna in Santa Croce: indagini per una ricostruzione.” In Santa Croce: Oltre le apparenze, ed. De Marchi, Andrea and Piraz, Giacomo, 72111. Pistoia: Gli Ori, 2011.Google Scholar
Giurescu, Ena. “Trecento Family Chapels in Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce: Architecture, Patronage, and Competition.” PhD diss., Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 1997.Google Scholar
Gschwend, Kolumban. Die depositio und elevatio Crucis im Raum der alten Diözese Brixen. Sarnen: Louis Ehrli, 1965.Google Scholar
Hall, Marcia B. “The Tramezzo in S. Croce, Florence and Domenico Veneziano's Fresco.” Burlington Magazine 112.813 (1970): 797–99.Google Scholar
Hall, Marcia B. “The Tramezzo in Santa Croce, Florence, Reconstructed.” Art Bulletin 56.3 (1974): 325–41.Google Scholar
Hall, Marcia B. “The Italian Rood Screen: Some Implications for Liturgy and Function.” In Essays Presented to Myron P. Gilmore: Volume 2, History of Art, ed. Bertellli, Sergio and Ramakus, Gloria, 213–18. Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1978.Google Scholar
Hall, Marcia B. Renovation and Counter-Reformation: Vasari and Duke Cosimo in Sta Maria Novella and Sta Croce, 1565–1577. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
Hall, Marcia B. “Another Look at the Rood Screen in the Italian Renaissance.” Institute for Sacred Architecture (2015). http://www.sacredarchitecture.org/articles/another_look_at_the_rood_screen_in_the_italian_renaissance.Google Scholar
Hardison, O. B. Christian Rite and Christian Drama in the Middle Ages: Essays in the Origin and Early History of Modern Drama. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1965.Google Scholar
Harris, Jim. “Donatello's Polychromed Sculpture: Case Studies in Materials and Meaning.” 2 vols. PhD diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, 2010.Google Scholar
Harris, Jim. “Defying the Predictable: Donatello and the Discomfiture of Vasari.” In Una insalata di più erbe: A Festschrift for Patricia Lee Rubin, ed. Harris, Jim, Nethersole, Scott, and Rumberg, Per, 151–63. London: Courtland Institute of Art, 2011.Google Scholar
Henderson, John. Piety and Charity in Late Medieval Florence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
Herlihy, David, Burr Litchfield, R., Molho, Anthony, and Barducci, Roberto. “Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online ‘Tratte’ of Office Holders 1282–1532.” Brown University, http://cds.library.brown.edu/projects/tratte.Google Scholar
Holmes, Megan. The Miraculous Image in Renaissance Florence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Hood, William. “Saint Dominic's Manners of Praying: Gestures in Fra Angelico's Cell Frescoes at S. Marco.” Art Bulletin 68.2 (1986): 195206.10.1080/00043079.1986.10788332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howard, Deborah, and Moretti, Laura. Sound and Space in Renaissance Venice: Architecture, Music, Acoustics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
Jansen, Katherine Ludwig. Peace and Penance in Late Medieval Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018.Google Scholar
Janson, H. W. The Sculpture of Donatello. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963.Google Scholar
Johnson, Geraldine A. “(Un)richtige Aufnahme: Sculpture, Photography and the Visual Historiography of Art History.” Art History 26.1 (2013): 1251.10.1111/j.1467-8365.2012.00917.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jung, Jacqueline E. “Beyond the Barrier: The Unifying Role of the Choir Screen in Gothic Churches.” Art Bulletin 82.4 (2000): 622–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jung, Jacqueline E. The Gothic Screen: Space, Sculpture, and Community in the Cathedrals of France and Germany, ca. 1200–1400. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Jung, Tanya A. “The Phenomenal Lives of Movable Christ Sculptures.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2006.Google Scholar
Jungmann, Josef A. The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Sollemnia). Trans. Brunner, Francis A.. London: Burns & Oates, 1959.Google Scholar
Kalina, Pavel. “Giovanni Pisano, the Dominicans, and the Origin of the ‘Crucifixi Dolorosi.’Artibus et historiae 24.47 (2003): 81101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanter, Laurence B., ed. Painting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence, 1300–1450. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994.Google Scholar
Kauffmann, Hans. Donatello: Eine Einführung in sein Bilden und Denken. Berlin: G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1935.Google Scholar
Kopania, Kamil. Animated Sculptures of the Crucified Christ in the Religious Culture of the Latin Middle Ages. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Neriton, 2010.Google Scholar
Kroesen, Justin E. A. The Sepulchrum Domini through the Ages: Its Form and Function. Trans. Kofod, Margaret. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, 2000.Google Scholar
Ladis, Andrew. Taddeo Gaddi: Critical Reappraisal and Catalogue Raisonné. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1982.Google Scholar
Lalli, Carlo, Moioli, Pietro, Rizzi, Maria, et al. “Il Crocifisso di Donatello nella Basilica di Santa Croce a Firenze. Osservazioni dopo il restauro.” OPD Restauro 18 (2006): 1338.Google Scholar
La Salle, Donald. “Liturgical and Popular Lament: A Study of the Role of Lament in Liturgical and Popular Religious Practices of Good Friday in Northern Italy from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Centuries.” PhD diss., Catholic University of America, 1997.Google Scholar
Lippe, Robert, ed. Missale Romanum Mediolani, 1474. 2 vols. London: Harrison and Sons, 18991907.Google Scholar
Lipton, Sara. “‘The Sweet Lean of His Head’: Writing about Looking at the Crucifix in the High Middle Ages.” Speculum 80.4 (2005): 1172–208.10.1017/S003871340000138XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lisner, Margrit. “Intorno al Crocifisso di Donatello a Santa Croce.” In Donatello e il suo tempo: Atti dell'VIII Convegno internazionale di studi sul Rinascimento, 115–29. Florence: Istituto nazionale di studi sul Rinascimento, 1968.Google Scholar
Lisner, Margrit. Holzkruzifixe in Florenz und in der Toskana von der Zeit um 1300 bis zum frühen Cinquecento. Munich: Bruckmann, 1970.Google Scholar
Long, Jane C. “Salvation through Meditation: The Tomb Frescoes in the Holy Confessors Chapel at Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta 34.1 (1995): 7788.10.2307/767126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lunghi, Elvio. La Passione degli Umbri: Crocifissi di legno in Valle Umbra tra Medioevo e Rinascimento. Foligno: Edizioni Orfini Numeister, 2000.Google Scholar
Lunghi, Elvio. “La scultura lignea in Umbria nel XIII secolo.” In L'Umbria nel XIII secolo, ed. Menestò, Enrico, 299331. Spoleto: Fondazione CISAM, 2011.Google Scholar
Mazzoni, Cristina, ed. Angela of Foligno's Memorial: Translated from Latin with Introduction, Notes and Interpretive Essay. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1999.Google Scholar
McNamer, Sarah. “The Debate on the Origins of the ‘Meditationes Vitae Christi’: Recent Arguments and Prospects for Future Research.Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 111.1–2 (2018): 65112.Google Scholar
Meersseman, G. G. Ordo fraternitatis: Confraternite e pietà dei laici nel Medioevo. 3 vols. Rome: Herder, 1977.Google Scholar
Moisè, Filippo. Santa Croce di Firenze. Florence: Galileiana, 1845.Google Scholar
Morrison, Molly. “A Mystic's Drama: The Paschal Mystery in the Visions of Angela da Foligno.” Italica 78.1 (2001): 3652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morton, Frank Wells. “The Bianchi Movement of 1399: Its Individual Characteristics and Chronology.” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin, 1973.Google Scholar
Mugello culla del Rinascimento: Giotto, Beato Angelico, Donatello e i Medici. Ed. Tosti, Barbara. Florence: Polistampa, 2008.Google Scholar
Nagel, Alexander, and S, Christopher. Wood. Anachronic Renaissance. New York: Zone Books, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neilson, Christina. “Carving Life: The Meaning of Wood in Early Modern European Sculpture.” In The Matter of Art: Materials, Practices, Cultural Logics, c. 1250–1750, ed. Anderson, Christy, Dunlop, Anne, and Smith, Pamela H., 223–39. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
Neri Lusanna, Enrica. “Per il maestro dell'Annunciazione di San Cassiano.Antichità viva 28.5–6 (1989): 3640.Google Scholar
Newbigin, Nerida. “The Decorum of the Passion: The Plays of the Confraternity of the Gonfalone in the Roman Colosseun, 1490–1539.” In Confraternities and the Visual Arts in Renaissance Italy: Ritual, Spectacle, Image, ed. Wisch, Barbara and Ahl, Diane Cole, 173202. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Newbigin, Nerida. “‘L'occhio si dice ch’è la prima porta’: Seeing with Words in the Florentine ‘Sacre Rappresentazione.’Mediaevalia 28.1 (2007): 122.Google Scholar
Ogden, Dunbar H. The Staging of Drama in the Medieval Church. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Oswald, Friedrich. “In medio Ecclesiae: Die Deutung der literarischen Zeugnisse im Lichte archäologischer Funde.” Frühmittelalterliche Studien 3 (1969): 313–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ousterhout, Robert G. “The Church of Santo Stefano: A ‘Jerusalem’ in Bologna.” Gesta 20.2 (1981): 311–21.10.2307/766940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paoletti, John. “Wooden Sculpture in Italy as Sacral Presence.” Artibus et historiae 13.26 (1992): 85100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Elizabeth C. The Descent from the Cross: Its Relation to the Extra-Liturgical “Depositio” Drama. New York: Garland, 1978.Google Scholar
Pilliod, Elizabeth. “Studies on the Early Career of Alessandro Allori.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1989.Google Scholar
Pilliod, Elizabeth. “Review of ‘Alessandro Allori’ by Simona Lecchini Giovannoni.” Burlington Magazine 134.1076 (1992): 727–29.Google Scholar
Pilliod, Elizabeth. Pontormo, Bronzino, Allori: A Genealogy of Florentine Art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
Pines, Doralynn Schlossman. “The Tomb Slabs of Santa Croce: A New ‘Sepoltuario.’” PhD diss., Columbia University, 1985.Google Scholar
Plum, Anne-Madeleine. Adoratio crucis in Ritus und Gesang: Die Verehrung des Kreuzes in liturgischer Feier und in zehn exemplarischen Passionsliedern. Tübingen: Francke, 2006.Google Scholar
Porta Casucci, Emanuela. “‘Un uomo di vetro’ fra corti e cortile. Giovanni Boccaccio, i del Buono e gli altri.Heliotropia 12–13 (2015–16): 189212.Google Scholar
Powell, Amy. Depositions: Scenes from the Late Medieval Church and the Modern Museum. New York: Zone Books, 2012.Google Scholar
Ragusa, Isa, and Green, Rosalie B., eds. Meditations on the Life of Christ: An Illustrated Manuscript of the Fourteenth Century; Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. Ital., 115. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
Rampold, Reinhard. “Gotische Kruzifixe mit Schwenkbaren Armen--Neuentdeckung in Tirol.” Der Schlern 73 (1999): 425–36.Google Scholar
Rihouet, Pascale. “The Unifying Power of Moving Pictures in Late Medieval and Renaissance Umbria.” PhD diss., Brown University, 2008.Google Scholar
Rubin, Miri. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
Rubin, Patricia Lee. Giorgio Vasari: Art and History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Ryan, William Granger, ed. Jacobus de Voragine's The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
Santi, Bruno. “Un diario, un pittore, un monaco: Neri di Bicci e don Romualdo.” In “Fece di scoltura di legname e colorì” (2016), 88101.Google Scholar
Schlegel, Ursula. “Observations on Masaccio's Trinity Fresco in Santa Maria Novella.” Art Bulletin 45.1 (1963): 1933.Google Scholar
Schulz, Anne Markham. “Antonio Bonvicino and Venetian Crucifixes of the Early Quattrocento.” Mitteilungen des kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 48.3 (2004): 293332.Google Scholar
Sebregondi, Ludovica. Santa Croce Sotterranea: Trasformazioni e retauri. Florence: Città di Vita, 1997.Google Scholar
Seidel, Max. “‘Sculpens in lingo splendida’: Sculture lignee di Giovanni Pisano.” In Sacre passioni: Scultura lignea a Pisa dal XII al XV secolo, ed. Burresi, Mariagiulia, 7994. Milan: F. Motta, 2000.Google Scholar
Sheingorn, Pamela. The Easter Sepulchre in England. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1987.Google Scholar
Steinberg, Leo. The Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion. London: Faber, 1984.Google Scholar
Stiberc, Peter. “Donatellos Kruzifix in Santa Croce: Untersuchung und Restaurierung im Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florenz.” Restauro: Forum für Restauratoren, Konservatoren und Denkmalpfleger 6 (2007): 386–94.Google Scholar
Summers, David. “Heinrich Wölfflin's ‘Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe,’ 1915.” Burlington Magazine 151 (2009): 476–79.Google Scholar
Tarr, Roger. “Brunelleschi and Donatello: Placement and Meaning in Sculpture.” Artibus et historiae 16.32 (1995): 101–40.Google Scholar
Taubert, Gesine, and Taubert, Johannes. “Mittelalterliche Kruzifixe mit schwenkbaren Armen.” Zeitschrift des deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft 23 (1969): 79121.Google Scholar
Taubert, Johannes. Farbige Skulpturen: Bedeutung, Fassung, Restaurierung. Munich: Callwey, 1978.Google Scholar
Terpstra, Nicholas, ed. The Politics of Ritual Kinship: Confraternities and Social Order in Early Modern Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Thompson, Augustine. Cities of God: The Religion of the Italian Communes 1125–1325. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Thompson, Nancy M. “The Franciscans and the True Cross: The Decoration of the Cappella Maggiore of Santa Croce in Florence.” Gesta 43.1 (2004): 6179.Google Scholar
Toker, Franklin. On Holy Ground: Liturgy, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Cathedral and the Streets of Medieval Florence. London: Harvey Miller, 2009.Google Scholar
Tomasi, Michele. “Il Crocifisso di San Giorgio ai Tedeschi e la diffusione del ‘Crocifisso doloroso.’” In Sacre passioni: Scultura lignea a Pisa dal XII al XV secolo, ed. Burresi, Mariagiulia, 5776. Milan: F. Motta, 2000.Google Scholar
Tripps, Johannes. Das handelnde Bildwerk in der Gotik. Forschungen zu den Bedeutungsschichten und der Funktion des Kirchengebäudes und seiner Ausstattung in der Hoch- und Spätgotik. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1998.Google Scholar
Tripps, Johannes. “‘Ein Crucifix, dem ausz den funff wunden rotter wein sprang’: Die Inszenierung von Christusfiguren in Spätgotik un Frührenaissance.” In Das Bild Gottes in Judentum, Christentum und Islam, ed. Leuschner, Eckhard and Hesslinger, Mark R., 117–27. Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2009.Google Scholar
Tripps, Johannes. “The Joy of Automata and Cistercian Monasteries: From Boxley in Kent to San Galgano in Tuscany.” Sculpture Journal 25.1 (2016): 728.10.3828/sj.2016.25.2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, John Douglas. “The Sculpture of Baccio da Montelupo.” 2 vols. PhD diss., Brown University, 1997.Google Scholar
Vasari, Giorgio. Le vite de’ più eccelenti pittori, scultori e architettori nelle redazioni del 1550 e 1568. Ed. Bettarini, Rosanna and Barocchi, Paola. 6 vols. Florence: Sansoni, 1966–87.Google Scholar
Weissman, Ronald F. E. Ritual Brotherhood in Renaissance Florence. New York: Academic Press, 1982.Google Scholar
Wierda, Bouk. “The True Identity of the Anonimo Magliabechiano.” Mitteilungen des kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 53.1 (2009): 157–68.Google Scholar
Wilkins, David G. “Donatello and His Patrons.” In Patronage and Italian Renaissance Sculpture, ed. Christian, Kathleen and Drogin, David, 117–47. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.Google Scholar
Wilson, Blake McDowell. Music and Merchants: The Laudesi Companies of Republican Florence. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.Google Scholar
Wisch, Barbara, and Ahl, Diane Cole, eds. Confraternities and the Visual Arts in Renaissance Italy: Ritual, Spectacle, Image. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Wright, Alison. “‘Touch the Truth’? Desiderio da Settignano, Renaissance Relief and the Body of Christ.” Sculpture Journal 21.1 (2012): 725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, Karl. The Drama of the Medieval Church. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933.Google Scholar