Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-fv566 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-18T10:19:18.680Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Constructing Identities in a Music Manuscript: The Medici Codex as a Gift*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 November 2018

Tim Shephard*
Affiliation:
University of Nottingham

Abstract

The motet manuscript known as the Medici Codex is associated by modern scholarship with the 1518 marriage of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne. It was once thought that the manuscript was made in France and given to Lorenzo by Francis I, but now it is almost unanimously agreed that it was made in Rome under the patronage of Pope Leo X. Since this revision, no one has put forward a detailed view of how the manuscript relates to the circumstances under which it was given and to the individuals involved, or how it functions as a gift. This study places the manuscript in the context of other gifts associated with the marriage to arrive at such a view.

Type
Studies
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 Renaissance Society of America

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

*

It is a pleasure to acknowledge with gratitude the kind help and suggestions of Bonnie Blackburn, Anthony Cummings, James Munk, Philip Weller, and the Articles Editor and an anonymous reader for this journal in the preparation of the present study. My work on the Medici Codex more generally has been greatly assisted by the generous, often critical, advice of Stanley Boorman, David Fallows, Joshua Rifkin, and Peter Wright, to whom I also extend my thanks. Translations are the author's unless otherwise credited.

References

Alberti, Leon Battista. On Painting and On Sculpture: The Latin Texts of De Pictura and De Statua. Ed. and trans. , Grayson, Cecil. London, 1972.Google Scholar
Baxandall, Michael. “A Dialogue on Art from the Court of Leonello d'Este: Angelo Decembrio's De Politia Litteraria Pars LXVIII.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 26 (1963): 304–26.10.2307/750496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, James H. “Raphael and Medici ‘State Portraits.’” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 38 (1975): 127–44.10.2307/1481900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bestor, Jane Fair . “Marriage Transactions in Renaissance Italy and Mauss' Essay on the Gift.” Past & Present 164 ( 1999 ): 646.10.1093/past/164.1.6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackburn, Bonnie J. “‘Te Matrem dei Laudamus’: A Study in the Musical Veneration of Mary.” Musical Quarterly 53 (1967): 5376.10.1093/mq/LIII.1.53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackburn, Bonnie J. “Music and Festivities at the Court of Leo X: A Venetian View.” Early Music History 11 (1992): 137.10.1017/S0261127900001182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackburn, Bonnie J. “Lorenzo de' Medici, a Lost Isaac Manuscript and the Venetian Ambassador.” In Musica Franca: Essays in Honour of Frank A. D'Accone, ed. , Alm, Irene, McLamore, Alyson, and , Reardon, Colleen, 1944. Stuyvesant, NY, 1996.Google Scholar
Blackburn, Bonnie J. “For Whom do the Singers Sing?” Early Music 25 (1997): 593609.10.1093/em/25.4.593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackburn, Bonnie J. “The Virgin in the Sun: Music and Image for a Prayer Attributed to Sixtus IV.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 124 (1999): 157–95.10.1093/jrma/124.2.157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bragard, A.-M. “Les musiciens ultramontains des chapelles du pape Médicis Léon X (1513–1521).” Bulletin de L'Institut Historique Belge de Rome 1 (1980): 187215.Google Scholar
Brobeck, John T. “Musical Patronage at the Royal Chapel of France under Francis I.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 48 (1995): 187239.10.2307/3128814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Cambridge Companion to Raphael. Ed. Marcia B. Hall. New York, 2005.Google Scholar
Campbell, Lorne. Renaissance Portraits: European Portrait-Painting in the 14th, 15th and 16th Centuries. New Haven, 1990.Google Scholar
Campbell, Stephen J. The Cabinet of Eros: Renaissance Mythological Painting and the Studiolo of Isabella d'Este. New Haven, 2004.Google Scholar
Cox-Rearick, Janet. Dynasty and Destiny in Medici Art: Pontormo, Leo X and the Two Cosimos. Princeton, 1984.Google Scholar
Crawford, David. “A Review of Costanzo Festa's Biography.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 28 (1975): 102–11.10.2307/830918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummings, Anthony M. “Toward an Interpretation of the Sixteenth-Century Motet.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 34 (1981): 4359.10.2307/831034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummings, Anthony M. “A Florentine Sacred Repertory from the Medici Restoration.” Acta Musicologica 55 (1983): 267332.10.2307/932848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummings, Anthony M. “Giulio de' Medici's Music Books.” Early Music History 10 (1991): 65122.10.1017/S0261127900001108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummings, Anthony M. The Politicized Muse: Music for Medici Festivals, 1512–1537. Princeton, 1992.Google Scholar
D'Accone, Frank. “The Musical Chapels at the Florentine Cathedral and Baptistry during the First Half of the Sixteenth Century.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 24 (1971): 150.10.2307/830891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, Bernice F. Raphael's Bible: A Study of the Vatican Logge. University Park, 1985.Google Scholar
Davis, Natalie Zemon. The Gift in Sixteenth-Century France. Oxford, 2000.Google Scholar
Dean, Jeffrey. “The Scribes of the Sistine Chapel, 1501–1527.” PhD diss., The University of Chicago, 1984.Google Scholar
Dean, Jeffrey. “Johannes Brunet and Nato canunt omnia. Revista de musicología 16 (1993): 2656–72.10.2307/20796883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, Jeffrey. “Listening to Sacred Polyphony c. 1500.” Early Music 25 (1997): 611–36.10.1093/em/25.4.611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Del Serra, Alfio, et al., ed. Raffaello e il ritratto di papa Leone: Per il restauro del “Leone X con due cardinali” nella Galleria degli Uffizi. Milan, 1996.Google Scholar
di Teodoro, Francesco Paolo. Ritratto di Leone di Raffaello Sanzio. Milan, 1998.Google Scholar
Fallows, David. “Approaching a New Chronology for Josquin: An Interim Report.” Schweizer Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft 19 (1999): 131–50.Google Scholar
Finscher, Ludwig. “Der Medici-Kodex: Geschichte und Edition.” Rev. of The Medici Codex by Edward Lowinsky. Die Musikforschung 30 (1977): 468–81.Google Scholar
Firth, Raymond. Symbols: Public and Private. New York, 1973.Google Scholar
Freedman, Richard. “Music, Musicians, and the House of Lorraine during the First Half of the Sixteenth Century.” PhD diss., The University of Pennsylvania, 1987.Google Scholar
Frey, Herman W. “Regesten zur papstlichen Kapelle unter Leo X und zu seiner Privatkapelle.” Die Musikforschung 8 (1955): 5873, 178–99, 412–37; 9 (1956): 46–57, 139–56, 411–19.Google Scholar
Goffen, Rona. Renaissance Rivals: Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, Titian. London, 2002.Google Scholar
Greenblatt, Stephen. Renaissance Self-Fashioning from More to Shakespeare. Chicago, 1980.Google Scholar
Hall, Marcia B. “Introduction.” In The Cambridge Companion to Raphael (2005), 114.Google Scholar
Hudson, Barton. “Brumel, Antoine.” In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/04151 (accessed 17 September 2008).Google Scholar
Jones, Roger, and , Penny, Nicolas. Raphael. New Haven, 1983.Google Scholar
Jungić, Josephine. “Prophecies of the Angelic Pastor in Sebastiano del Piombo's Portrait of Cardinal Bandinello Sauli and Three Companions.” In Prophetic Rome in the High Renaissance Period: Essays, ed. , Reeves, Marjorie, 345–70. Oxford, 1992.Google Scholar
Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane. Women, Family and Ritual in Renaissance Italy. Trans. , Cochrane, Lydia G. Chicago, 1985.Google Scholar
Lockwood, Lewis. “Josquin at Ferrara: New Documents and Letters.” In Josquin des Prez, ed. , Lowinsky, Edward E, 103–37. London, 1976.Google Scholar
Lockwood, Lewis. “Jean Mouton and Jean Michel: New Evidence on French Music and Musicians in Italy, 1505–1520.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 32 (1979): 191246.10.2307/831078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lockwood, Lewis. Music in Renaissance Ferrara, 1400–1505: The Creation of a Musical Centre in the Fifteenth Century. Oxford, 1984.Google Scholar
Lockwood, Lewis. “Adrian Willaert and Cardinal Ippolito I d'Este: New Light on Willaert's Early Career in Italy, 1515–21.” Early Music History 5 (1985): 85112.10.1017/S026112790000067XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowinsky, Edward E. “The Medici Codex: A Document of Music, Art, and Politics in the Renaissance.” Annales musicologiques 5 (1957): 61178.Google Scholar
Lowinsky, Edward E. The Medici Codex of 1518: A Choirbook of Motets Dedicated to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino. 3 vols. Chicago, 1968.Google Scholar
Lowinsky, Edward E. “On the Presentation and Interpretation of Evidence: Another Review of Costanzo Festa's Biography.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 30 (1977): 106–28.10.2307/831132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowinsky, Edward E. “Communication.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 32 (1979): 361–64.10.2307/831089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mauss, Marcel. The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. Trans. , Halls, W. D. New York, 1990.Google Scholar
Minnich, Nelson H. “Raphael's Portrait ‘Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi’: A Religious Interpretation.” Renaissance Quarterly 56.4 (2003): 1005–52.10.2307/1261978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesselrath, Arnold. “Nr. 22. Giorgio Vasari (1511–74), Papst Leo X mit den Kardinalen Giulio de' Medici und Luigi de'Rossi (Kopie nach Raphael) 1537.” In Hoch Renaissance im Vatikan: Kunst und Kultur im Rom der Päpste, 1503–1534, ed. , Kruse, Petra et al., 441–43. Ostfildern-Ruit, 1999.Google Scholar
Newton, Stella Mary. The Dress of the Venetians, 1495–1525. Aldershot, 1988.Google Scholar
Nugent, George. “Jacotin.” In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/14071 (accessed 17 September 2008).Google Scholar
Oberhuber, Konrad. “Raphael and the State Portrait, I: The Portrait of Julius II.” The Burlington Magazine 113.816 (1971a): 124–32.Google Scholar
Oberhuber, Konrad. “Raphael and the State Portrait, II: The Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici.” The Burlington Magazine 113.821 (1971b): 436–43.Google Scholar
Oberhuber, Konrad. Raphael: The Paintings. Munich, 1999.Google Scholar
Perkins, Leeman, ed. Johannes Lhéritier: Opera Omnia. 2 pts. Rome, 1969a.Google Scholar
Perkins, Leeman. Rev. of The Medici Codex by Edward Lowinsky. Musical Quarterly 55 (1969b): 255–69.10.1093/mq/LV.2.255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Picker, Martin. “The Motet Anthologies of Andrea Antico.” In A Musical Offering: Essays in Honor of Martin Bernstein, ed. , Clinkscale, Edward H , Brook, Claire, 211–38. New York, 1977.Google Scholar
Picker, Martin, ed. The Motet Books of Andrea Antico. Chicago, 1987.Google Scholar
Pirro, André. “Leo X and Music.” Trans. Gustave Reese. Musical Quarterly 21 (1935): 116.10.1093/mq/XXI.1.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pirrotta, Nino. “Music and Cultural Tendencies in 15th-Century Italy.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 19 (1966): 127–61.10.2307/830579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiss, Sheryl E. “Widow, Mother, Patron of Art: Alfonsina Orsini de' Medici.” In Beyond Isabella: Secular Women Patrons of Art in Renaissance Italy, ed. , Reiss, Sheryl E and , Wilkins, David G, 125–56. Kirksville, 2001.Google Scholar
Rifkin, Joshua. “Scribal Concordances for Some Renaissance Manuscripts in Florentine Libraries.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 26 (1973): 305–26.10.2307/830669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rifkin, Joshua. “Communication.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 30 (1977): 542–45.10.2307/831059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roscoe, William. The Life and Pontificate of Leo X. 2 vols. 5th ed. London, 1846.Google Scholar
Rowland, Ingrid D. “The Vatican Stanze.” In The Cambridge Companion to Raphael (2005), 95119.Google Scholar
Seay, Albert. “Two Datable Chansons from an Attaignant Print.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 26 (1973): 326–28.10.2307/830670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shearman, John. “The Florentine Entrata of Leo X, 1515.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 38 (1975): 136–54.10.2307/750951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shearman, John. “Alfonso d'Este's Camerino.” In “Il se rendit en Italie”: Etudes offertes à André Chastel, 209–30. Rome, 1987a.Google Scholar
Shearman, John. “A Note on the Chronology of Villa Madama.” Burlington Magazine 129.1008 (1987b): 179–81.Google Scholar
Shearman, John. Only Connect . . . Art and the Spectator in the Italian Renaissance. Princeton, 1992.Google Scholar
Shearman, John. Raphael in Early Modern Sources: 1483–1602. 2 vols. New Haven, 2003.Google Scholar
Sherr, Richard. “A New Document Concerning Raphael's Portrait of Leo X.” The Burlington Magazine 125.958 (1983): 3132.Google Scholar
Sherr, Richard. “Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, as a Patron of Music.” In Renaissance Studies in Honor of Craig Hugh Smyth, ed. , Morselli, Piero et al., 627–38. Florence, 1985.Google Scholar
Sherr, Richard. “The Medici Coat of Arms in a Motet for Leo X.” Early Music 15 (1987): 3135.Google Scholar
Simons, Patricia. “Portraiture, Portrayal, and Idealization: Ambiguous Individualism in Representations of Renaissance Women.” In Language and Images of Renaissance Italy, ed. , Brown, Alison, 263311. Oxford, 1995.Google Scholar
Slim, H. Colin. A Gift of Madrigals and Motets. 2 vols. Chicago, 1972.Google Scholar
Sparks, Edgar. Rev. of The Medici Codex by Edward Lowinsky. Renaissance Quarterly 25.3 (1972): 326–28.10.2307/2859013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, Edgar. Rev. of The Medici Codex by Edward Lowinsky. Notes 30 (1973): 140–42.10.2307/896043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staehelin, Martin. Rev. of The Medici Codex by Edward Lowinsky. Journal of the American Musicological Society 33 (1980): 575–87.10.2307/831307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stephens, J. N. The Fall of the Florentine Republic 1512–1530. Oxford, 1983.Google Scholar
Tacconi, Marica S. “Appropriating the Instruments of Worship: The 1512 Medici Restoration and the Florentine Cathedral Choirbooks.” Renaissance Quarterly 56.2 (2003): 333–76.10.2307/1261850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Talvacchia, Bette. “Raphael's Workshop and the Development of a Managerial Style.” In The Cambridge Companion to Raphael (2005), 167–85.Google Scholar
Talvacchia, Bette. Raphael. London, 2007.Google Scholar
Tomas, Natalie. “Alfonsina Orsini de' Medici and the ‘Problem’ of a Female Ruler in Early Sixteenth-Century Florence.” Renaissance Studies 14 (2003): 7090.10.1111/j.1477-4658.2000.tb00372.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomasello, Andrew. “Ritual, Tradition and Polyphony at the Court of Rome.” Journal of Musicology 4 (1985–86): 447–71.10.2307/763751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tommasini, O. La Vita e gli Scritti di Niccolò Machiavelli. 2 vols. in 3 pts. Rome, 1883–1911.Google Scholar
Vasari, Giorgio. Le Vite de' Più Eccellenti Pittori Scultori ed Architettori scritte da Giorgio Vasari, Pittore Aretino, con Nuove Annotazioni e Commenti di Gaetano Milanesi. Ed. , Milanesi, Gaetano. 9 vols. Florence, 1878–85.Google Scholar
Warwick, Geneviève. “Gift Exchange and Art Collecting: Padre Sebastiano Resta's Drawing Albums.” The Art Bulletin 79 (1994): 630–46.10.2307/3046279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wegman, Rob C. “Musical Offerings in the Renaissance.” Early Music 33 (2005): 425–37.10.1093/em/cah102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss, Susan Forscher. “Lapicida, Erasmus.” In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/16012 (accessed 15 September 2008).Google Scholar
Wexler, Richard. “The Repertory of the Medici Codex.” Paper delivered at the conference “On the Relationship of Imitation and Text Treatment: The Motet around 1500,” University of Wales, Bangor, April 2007.Google Scholar
Woods-Marsden, Joanna. “One Artist, Two Sitters, One Role: Raphael's Papal Portraits.” In The Cambridge Companion to Raphael (2005), 120–40.Google Scholar