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Researches in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for radiation protection of non-human biota and ecosystems in Japanese environment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 June 2009

S. Yoshida
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
N. Ishii
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
Y. Ishikawa
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
I. Kawaguchi
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
Y. Kubota
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
K. Tagami
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
H. Takeda
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
M. Doi
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
T. Nakamori
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
T. Ban-nai
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
A. Fujimori
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
S. Fuma
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
K. Maruyama
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
T. Yasuda
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
K. Yanagisawa
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
K. Miyamoto
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
Y. Watanabe
Affiliation:
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan
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Abstract

This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© EDP Sciences, 2009

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References

International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP publication 103: Recommendations of the ICRP (2007).
Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management (ERICA): http://www.erica-project.org/.
Fukumura R., Takahashi H., Saito T., Tsutsumi Y., Fujimori A., Sato S., Tatsumi K., Araki R. and Abe M., Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (2003) e94.
Nakamori T., Yoshida S., Kubota Y., Ban-nai T., Kaneko N., Hasegawa M. and Itoh R., Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2007) doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.10.029.
Nakamori T., Fujimori A., Kinoshita K., Ban-nai T., Kubota Y. and Yoshida S., Environ. Sci. Technol. (2008) in press.
Yoshida S., Muramatsu Y. and Peijnenburg W.J.G.M., Radioprotection 40 (2005) S491.
Yasuda T., Aoki K., Matsumoto A., Maruyama K., Taguchi Y., Fushiki S. and Ishikawa Y., J. Radiat. Res. 47 (2006) 295.
Yasuda T., Yoshimoto M., Maeda K., Matsumoto A., Maruyama K. and Ishikawa Y., J. Radiat. Res. (2008) in press.
Fuma S., Ishii N., Takeda H., Miyamoto K., Yanagisawa K., Ichimasa Y., Saito M., Kawabata Z. and Polikarpov G.G., J. Environ. Radioactivity 67 (2003) 1.
Doi M. and Kawaguchi I., J. Environ. Radioactivity 96 (1/3) (2007) 32.
Takamatsu Y., Nishimura O., Inamori Y., Sudo R. and Matsumura M., Wat. Sci. Tech. 34 (1996) 61.
Ishii N., Homma-Takeda S., Tagami K., Fuma S. and Takeda H., Int. J. PIXE 17 (2008) 161.

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Researches in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for radiation protection of non-human biota and ecosystems in Japanese environment
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