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Measurements of cosmogenic nuclides made in situ in the Earth's surface are being used to help resolve a wide range of geologic and chronologic questions. Cosmogenic nuclides (3He, 10Be, 14C, 21Ne, 26Al 36C1 are presently used) can reveal rock exposure history information leading to estimates of timing of surface forming events, rates and styles of erosion, and timing and durations of episodes of burial. Depending on the problems being tackled, a significant source of error (±10–25%) for any cosmogenic nuclide method is the present uncertainty in the spatial and temporal variability of the rates of production of these in-situ nuclides.