Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-s4m2s Total loading time: 0.201 Render date: 2021-10-21T06:45:52.120Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Very Long-Lived Mollusks Confirm 17th Century AD Tephra-Based Radiocarbon Reservoir Ages for North Icelandic Shelf Waters

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2016

Alan D Wanamaker Jr*
Affiliation:
School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Wales LL59 5AB, United Kingdom
Jan Heinemeier
Affiliation:
AMS 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
James D Scourse
Affiliation:
School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Wales LL59 5AB, United Kingdom
Christopher A Richardson
Affiliation:
School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Wales LL59 5AB, United Kingdom
Paul G Butler
Affiliation:
School of Ocean Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Wales LL59 5AB, United Kingdom
Jón Eiríksson
Affiliation:
Earth Science Institute, Askja, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavík, Iceland
Karen Luise Knudsen
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
*
Corresponding author. Email: a.wanamaker@bangor.ac.uk
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Marine sediment records from the north Icelandic shelf, which rely on tephrochronological age models, reveal an average ΔR (regional deviation from the modeled global surface ocean reservoir age) of approximately 150 yr for the last millennium. These tephra-based age models have not hitherto been independently verified. Here, we provide data that corroborate ΔR values derived from these sediment archives. We sampled the youngest portion (ontogenetic age) of a bivalve shell, Arctica islandica (L.), for radiocarbon analysis, which was collected alive in 2006 from the north Icelandic shelf in ∼80 m water depth. Annual band counting from the sectioned shell revealed that this clam lived for more than 405 yr, making it the longest-lived mollusk and possibly the oldest non-colonial animal yet documented. The 14C age derived from the umbo region of the shell is 951 ± 27 yr BR Assuming that the bivalve settled onto the seabed at AD 1600, the corresponding local value of ΔR is found to be 237 ± 35 yr by comparison of the 14C age with the Marine04 calibration curve (Hughen et al. 2004) at this time. Furthermore, we cross-matched a 287-yr-old, dead-collected, A. islandica shell from AD 1601 to 1656 from the same site with the live-caught individual. 14C analysis from the ventral margin of this shell revealed a ΔR of 186 ± 50 yr at AD 1650. These values compare favorably with each other and with the tephra-based ΔR values during this period, illustrating that 14C from A. islandica can effectively record 14C reservoir changes in the shelf seas.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

References

Andersen, GJ, Heinemeier, J, Nielsen, HL, Rud, N, Thorn-sen, MS, Johnsen, S, Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á, Hjartarson, Á. 1989. AMS 14C dating on the Fossvogur sediments, Iceland. Radiocarbon 31(3):592600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andrews, JT, Giraudeau, J. 2003. Multi-proxy records showing significant Holocene environmental variability: the inner N. Iceland shelf (Húnaflói). Quaternary Science Reviews 22(2–4):175–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Astthorsson, OS, Gislason, A, Jónsson, S. 2007. Climate variability and the Icelandic marine ecosystem. Deep-Sea Research Part II 54(23–26):2456–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Austin, WEN, Bard, E, Hunt, JB, Kroon, D, Peacock, JD. 1995. The 14C age of the Icelandic Vedde Ash: implications for Younger Dryas marine reservoir age corrections. Radiocarbon 37(1):5362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baillie, MGL, Pilcher, JR. 1973. A simple cross-dating program for tree-ring research. Tree-Ring Bulletin 33: 714.Google Scholar
Broecker, WS, Olson, EA. 1961. Lamont radiocarbon measurements VIII. Radiocarbon 3(1):176204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, EM. 1980. Radiocarbon in annual coral rings of Belize and Florida. Radiocarbon 22(2):363–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, EM. 1982. Banded corals: changes in oceanic carbon-14 during the Little Ice Age. Science 218(4567):13–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Druffel, ERM. 1989. Decade time scale variability of ventilation in the North Atlantic: high-precision measurements of bomb radiocarbon in banded corals. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 94(C3):3271–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, EM, Linick, TW. 1978. Radiocarbon in annual coral rings of Florida. Geophysical Research Letters 5(11):913–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, ERM, Griffin, S, Beaupré, SR, Dunbar, RB. 2007. Oceanic climate and circulation changes during the past four centuries from radiocarbon in corals. Geophysical Research Letters 34(9): L09601, doi:10.1029/2006GL028681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, ERM, Robinson, LF, Griffin, S, Halley, RB, Southon, JR, Adkins, JF. 2008. Low reservoir ages for the surface ocean from mid-Holocene Florida corals. Paleoceanography 23(2): PA2209, doi:10.1029/2007PA001527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eiríksson, J, Larsen, G, Knudsen, KL, Heinemeier, J, Símonarson, LA. 2004. Marine reservoir age variability and water mass distribution in the Iceland Sea. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(20–22):2247–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eiríksson, J, Bartels-Jónsdóttir, HB, Cage, AG, Gudmundsdóttir, ER, Klitgaard-Kristensen, D, Marret, F, Rodrigues, T, Abrantes, F, Austin, WEN, Jiang, H, Knudsen, KL, Sejrup, H-P. 2006. Variability of the North Atlantic Current during the last 2000 years based on shelf bottom water and sea surface temperatures along an open ocean/shallow marine transect in western Europe. The Holocene 16(7):1017–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giraudeau, J, Jennings, AE, Andrews, JT. 2004. Timing and mechanisms of surface and intermediate water circulation changes in the Nordic Seas over the last 10,000 cal years: a view from the North Iceland shelf. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(20–22):2127–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guilderson, TP, Schrag, DP, Kashgarian, M, Southon, J. 1998. Radiocarbon variability in the western equatorial Pacific inferred from a high-resolution coral record from Nauru Island. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 103(C11):24,64150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guilderson, TP, Schrag, DP, Cane, MA. 2004. Surface water mixing in the Solomon Sea as documented by a high-resolution coral 14C record. Journal of Climate 17(5):1147–56.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, B, Østerhus, S. 2000. North Atlantic-Nordic seas exchanges. Progress in Oceanography 45(2):109208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helama, S, Schöne, BR, Kirchhefer, AJ, Nielsen, JK, Rod-land, DL, Janssen, R. 2007. Compound response of marine and terrestrial ecosystems to varying climate: pre-anthropogenic perspective from bivalve shell growth increments and tree-rings. Marine Environmental Research 63(3):185–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hughen, KA, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Beck, JW, Bertrand, CJH, Blackwell, PG, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Cutler, KB, Damon, PE, Edwards, RL, Fairbanks, RG, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, TP, Kromer, B, McCormac, G, Manning, S, Bronk Ramsey, C, Reimer, PJ, Reimer, RW, Remmele, S, Southon, JR, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, FW, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2004. Marine04 marine radiocarbon age calibration, 0–26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46(3):1059–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiang, H, Eiríksson, J, Schulz, M, Knudsen, KL, Seidenkrantz, M-S. 2005. Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic Shelf during the late Holocene. Geology 33(1):73–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, DS. 1980. Annual cycle of shell growth increment formation in two continental shelf bivalves and its paleoecologic significance. Paleobiology 6(3):331–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jónsson, S. 1992. Sources of fresh water in the Iceland Sea and mechanisms for governing its interannual variability. ICES Marine Science Symposia 95:62–7.Google Scholar
Jónsson, S. 2007. Volume flux and fresh water transport associated with the East Icelandic Current. Progress in Oceanography 73(3–4):231–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kilbourne, KH, Quinn, TM, Guilderson, TP, Webb, RS, Taylor, FW. 2007. Decadal- to interannual-scale source water variations in the Caribbean Sea recorded by Puerto Rican coral radiocarbon. Climate Dynamics 29(1):5162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knudsen, KL, Eiríksson, J, Jansen, E, Jiang, H, Rytter, F, Gudmundsdóttir, ER. 2004a. Palaeoceanographic changes off North Iceland through the last 1200 years: foraminifera, stable isotopes, diatoms and ice rafted debris. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(20–22):2231–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knudsen, KL, Jiang, H, Jansen, E, Eiríksson, J, Heinemeier, J, Seidenkrantz, M-S. 2004b. Environmental changes off North Iceland during the deglaciation and the Holocene: foraminifera, diatoms and stable isotopes. Marine Micropaleontology 50(3–4):273305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larsen, G, Eiríksson, J, Knudsen, KL, Heinemeier, J. 2002. Correlation of late Holocene terrestrial and marine tephra markers, north Iceland: implications for reservoir age changes. Polar Research 21(2):283–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malmberg, S-A, Jónsson, S. 1997. Timing of deep convection in the Greenland and Iceland seas. ICES Journal of Marine Science 54(3):300–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchitto, TM Jr, Jones, GA, Goodfriend, GA, Weidman, CR. 2000. Precise temporal correlation of Holocene mollusk shells using sclerochronology. Quaternary Research 53(2):236–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, R, Petrie, B, Weidman, CR, Dickson, RR, Loder, JW, Hannah, CG, Frank, K, Drinkwater, K. 1999. The 1882 tilefish kill - a cold event in shelf waters off the northeastern United States? Fisheries Oceanography 8(1):3949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pilcher, JR, Baillie, MGL, Brown, DM, McCormac, FG, MacSweeney, PB, McLawrence, AS. 1995. Dendrochronology of subfossil pine in the north of Ireland. Journal of Ecology 83(4):665–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ropes, JW. 1984. Procedures for preparing acetate peels and evidence validating the annual periodicity of growth lines formed in the shells of ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica. Marine Fisheries Review 46(2):2735.Google Scholar
Schöne, BR, Oschmann, W, Rössler, J, Castro, ADF, Houk, SD, Kröncke, I, Dreyer, W, Janssen, R, Rumohr, H, Dunca, E. 2003. North Atlantic Oscillation dynamics recorded in shells of a long-lived bivalve mollusk. Geology 31(12):1037–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schöne, BR, Castro, ADF, Fiebig, J, Houk, SD, Oschmann, W, Kröncke, I. 2004. Sea surface water temperatures over the period 1884–1983 reconstructed from oxygen isotope ratios of a bivalve mollusk shell (Arctica islandica, southern North Sea). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 212(3–4):215–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schöne, BR, Fiebig, J, Pfeiffer, M, Gleß, R, Hickson, J, Johnson, ALA, Dreyer, W, Oschmann, W. 2005a. Climate records from a bivalve Methuselah (Arctica islandica, Mollusca; Iceland). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 228(1–2): 130–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schöne, BR, Dunca, E, Fiebig, J, Pfeiffer, M. 2005b. Mutvei's solution: an ideal agent for resolving micro-growth structures of biogenic carbonates. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 228(1–2): 149–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scourse, J, Richardson, C, Forsythe, G, Harris, I, Heinemeier, J, Fraser, N, Briffa, K, Jones, P. 2006. First cross-matched floating chronology from the marine fossil record: data from growth lines of the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica. The Holocene 16(7):967–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sicre, M-A, Jacob, J, Ezat, U, Rousse, S, Kissel, C, Yiou, P, Eiríksson, J, Knudsen, KL, Jansen, E, Turon, J-L. 2008. Decadal variability of sea surface temperatures off North Iceland over the last 2000 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 268(1–2):137–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stefánsson, U. 1962. North Icelandic waters. Rit Fiskideildar 3:1269.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swift, JH. 1986. The Arctic waters. In: Hurdles, BG, editor. Nordic Seas. Volume 3. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 129–53.Google Scholar
Swift, JH, Aagaard, K. 1981. Seasonal transitions and water mass formation in the Iceland and Greenland seas. Deep-Sea Research Part A 28(10):1107–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tauber, H, Funder, S. 1975. 14C content of recent molluscs from Scoresby Sund, central East Greenland. Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelese, Rapport 75:95–9.Google Scholar
Thompson, I, Jones, DS, Dreibelbis, D. 1980. Annual internal growth banding and life history of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Marine Biology 57(1):2534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogel, JS, Southon, JR, Nelson, DE, Brown, TA. 1984. Performance of catalytically condensed carbon for use in accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 5(2):289–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wanamaker, AD Jr, Kreutz, KJ, Schöne, BR, Pettigrew, N, Borns, HW, Introne, DS, Belknap, D, Maasch, KA, Feindel, S. 2008. Coupled North Atlantic slope water forcing on Gulf of Maine temperatures over the past millennium. Climate Dynamics 31(2–3):183–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weidman, CR, Jones, GA. 1993. A shell-derived time history of bomb 14C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 98(C8):14,57788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weidman, CR, Jones, GA, Lohmann, KC. 1994. The long-lived mollusc Arctica islandica: a new paleoceanographic tool for the reconstruction of bottom temperatures for the continental shelves of the northern North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 99(C9):18,30514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witbaard, R. 1996. Growth variations in Arctica islandica L. (Mollusca): a reflection of hydrography-related food supply. ICES Journal of Marine Science 53(6):981–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witbaard, R, Duineveld, GCA, DeWilde, PAWJ. 1997. A long-term growth record derived from Arctica islandica (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Fladen Ground (northern North Sea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 77(3):801–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witbaard, R, Jansma, E, Klaassen, US. 2003. Copepods link quahog growth to climate. Journal of Sea Research 50(1):7783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access
107
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Very Long-Lived Mollusks Confirm 17th Century AD Tephra-Based Radiocarbon Reservoir Ages for North Icelandic Shelf Waters
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Very Long-Lived Mollusks Confirm 17th Century AD Tephra-Based Radiocarbon Reservoir Ages for North Icelandic Shelf Waters
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Very Long-Lived Mollusks Confirm 17th Century AD Tephra-Based Radiocarbon Reservoir Ages for North Icelandic Shelf Waters
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *