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Selection and Treatment of Data for Radiocarbon Calibration: An Update to the International Calibration (IntCal) Criteria

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 February 2016

Paula J Reimer
Affiliation:
14CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment and Chronology, School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom
Edouard Bard
Affiliation:
CEREGE, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopole de l'Arbois BP 80, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 4, France
Alex Bayliss
Affiliation:
English Heritage, 1 Waterhouse Square, 138-142 Holborn, London EC1N 2ST, United Kingdom
J Warren Beck
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
Paul G Blackwell
Affiliation:
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom
Christopher Bronk Ramsey
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford 0X1 3QY, United Kingdom
David M Brown
Affiliation:
14CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment and Chronology, School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom
Caitlin E Buck
Affiliation:
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom
R Lawrence Edwards
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0231, USA
Michael Friedrich
Affiliation:
Institute of Botany (210), Hohenheim University, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Pieter M Grootes
Affiliation:
Institute for Ecosystem Research, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel 24098, Germany
Thomas P Guilderson
Affiliation:
Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA Ocean Sciences Department, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
Haflidi Haflidason
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, N-5007 Bergen, Norway
Irka Hajdas
Affiliation:
Labor fur Ionenstrahlphysik, ETH, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Christine Hatté
Affiliation:
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, UMR8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Domaine du CNRS, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Timothy J Heaton
Affiliation:
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom
Alan G Hogg
Affiliation:
Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
Konrad A Hughen
Affiliation:
Department of Marine Chemistry & Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
K Felix Kaiser
Affiliation:
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zurcherstr. 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland Department of Geography, University of Zurich-Irchel, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Bernd Kromer
Affiliation:
Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Sturt W Manning
Affiliation:
Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology, Cornell Tree Ring Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Ron W Reimer
Affiliation:
14CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment and Chronology, School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom
David A Richards
Affiliation:
School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1SS, United Kingdom
E Marian Scott
Affiliation:
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland
John R Southon
Affiliation:
Department of Earth System Science, University of California–Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA
Christian S M Turney
Affiliation:
Climate Change Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Johannes van der Plicht
Affiliation:
Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzoek, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, the Netherlands Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands
Corresponding
E-mail address:
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Abstract

High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

Footnotes

Deceased.

IntCal Oversight Committee members.

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