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Marine04 Marine Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr Bp

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2016

Konrad A Hughen
Affiliation:
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Department of Marine Chemistry & Geochemistry, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA.
Mike G L Baillie
Affiliation:
School of Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom
Edouard Bard
Affiliation:
CEREGE, UMR-6635, Europole de l'Arbois BP80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence cdx 4, France
J Warren Beck
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
Chanda J H Bertrand
Affiliation:
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Department of Marine Chemistry & Geochemistry, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA.
Paul G Blackwell
Affiliation:
Department of Probability and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom
Caitlin E Buck
Affiliation:
Department of Probability and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom
George S Burr
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
Kirsten B Cutler
Affiliation:
U.S. Department of State, Office of Senior Coordinator for Nuclear Safety, 2201 C Street NW, Washington DC, USA.
Paul E Damon
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
Richard L Edwards
Affiliation:
Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
Richard G Fairbanks
Affiliation:
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA.
Michael Friedrich
Affiliation:
Universität Hohenheim, Institut für Botanik-210, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany
Thomas P Guilderson
Affiliation:
Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 92697, USA.
Bernd Kromer
Affiliation:
Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Gerry McCormac
Affiliation:
School of Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom
Sturt Manning
Affiliation:
The Department of Fine Art, Sidney Smith Hall, 100 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada Department of Archaeology, University of Reading, P.O. Box 217 Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AB, United Kingdom
Christopher Bronk Ramsey
Affiliation:
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, 6 Keble Rd., Oxford OX2 6JB, England
Paula J Reimer
Affiliation:
School of Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.
Ron W Reimer
Affiliation:
Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 92697, USA.
Sabine Remmele
Affiliation:
Universität Hohenheim, Institut für Botanik-210, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany
John R Southon
Affiliation:
Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.
Minze Stuiver
Affiliation:
Quaternary Isotope Lab, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Sahra Talamo
Affiliation:
Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
F W Taylor
Affiliation:
Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA.
Johannes VAN der Plicht
Affiliation:
Center for Isotope Research, Groningen University, 9747 AG Groningen, the Netherlands Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands
Constanze E Weyhenmeyer
Affiliation:
Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.
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Abstract

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New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0–10.5 cal kyr BP. Beyond 10.5 cal kyr BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific 14C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al. (this issue).

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

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