Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-r9vz2 Total loading time: 0.189 Render date: 2021-07-30T20:10:33.295Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Marine Reservoir Corrections for the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2016

John Southon
Earth System Science Department, 220 Rowland Hall, University of California, Irvine, California, 92697-3100, USA. Email:
Michaele Kashgarian
Center for AMS, L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 USA
Michel Fontugne
Laboratoire des Sciences, du Climat et de l'Environment, Domaine du CNRS, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
Bernard Metivier
Laboratoire de Biologie des Invertebres Marins et Malacologie, Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle, 55 Rue de Buffon, 75005 Paris, France
Wyss W-S Yim
Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China
E-mail address:
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


We have measured radiocarbon in prebomb known-age shells and coral from the Indian Ocean and southeast Asia to determine marine reservoir age corrections. Western Indian Ocean results show a strong 14C depletion due to upwelling in the Arabian Sea, and indicate that this signal is advected over a wide area to the east and south. In contrast, the surface waters of the South China Sea contain relatively high levels of 14C, due in part to the input of well-equilibrated water masses from the western Pacific. The easternmost regions of the Indian Ocean are also strongly influenced by the flowthrough of Pacific waters north of Australia.

Copyright © 2002 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 


Bard, E, Arnold, M, Toggweiler, JR, Maurice, P, Duplessy, J-C. 1989. Bomb 14C in the Indian Ocean measured by accelerator mass spectrometry: oceanographic implications. Radiocarbon 31(3):510–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhushan, R, Chakraborty, S, Krishnaswami, S. 1994. Physical Research Laboratory (Chemistry) radiocarbon date list I. Radiocarbon 36(2):251–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowman, GM. 1985. Oceanic reservoir correction for marine radiocarbon dates from northwestern Australia. Australian Archaeology 20:5867.Google Scholar
Broecker, WS. 1963. 14C/12C ratios in surface ocean water. U.S. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council publication 1075:138–49.Google Scholar
Broecker, WS, Cember, RP, Toggweiler, JR, Trumbore, SE, White, J. 1987. Final Report on the Lamont-Doherty geological Observatory coral radioisotope project. DOE/EV/10041C-1 (unpublished).Google Scholar
Cember, R. 1989. Bomb radiocarbon in the Red Sea: a medium-scale gas exchange experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research 94:2111–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Church, JA, Cresswell, G, Godfrey, JS. 1989. The Leeuwin Current. In: Neshyba, SJ, Mooers, ChNK, Smith, RL, Barber, RT, editors. Poleward flow along eastern ocean boundaries. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 34. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 230–54.Google Scholar
Delibrias, G. 1980. Carbon-14 in the Southern Ocean. Radiocarbon 22(3):684–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, ERM. 1997. Pulses of rapid variation in the North Atlantic surface ocean during the past century. Science 275:1454–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, ERM, Griffin, S. 1993. Large variations of surface ocean radiocarbon: evidence of circulation changes in the southwestern Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research 98:20249–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, ERM, Griffin, S. 1999. Variability of surface ocean radiocarbon and stable isotopes in the southwestern Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research 104:23607–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Druffel, ERM, Suess, H. 1983. On the radiocarbon record in banded corals. Journal of Geophysical Research 88:1271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dutta, K, Bhushan, K, Somayajulu, BLK. 2001. ΔR correction values for the northern Indian Ocean. Radiocarbon 43(2):483–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dye, T. 1995. Apparent ages of marine shells: implications for archaeological dating in Hawai'i. Radiocarbon 36(1):51–7.Google Scholar
Fieux, M, Andrie, C, Delecluse, P, Ilahude, AG, Kartavtseff, A, Mantisi, F, Molcard, R, Swallow, JC. 1994. Measurements within the Pacific-Indian oceans flowthrough region. Deep Sea Research 41:1091–130.Google Scholar
Fieux, M, Andrie, C, Charriaud, E, Ilahude, AG, Metzel, N, Molcard, R, Swallow, JC. 1996. Hydrological and chlorofluoromethane measurements of the Indonesian flowthrough entering the Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:12433–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fine, RA, Lukas, R, Bingham, FM, Warner, MJ, Gammon, RH. 1994. The western equatorial Pacific: a water mass crossroads. Journal of Geophysical Research 99:25063–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ganachaud, A, Wunsch, C. 2000. Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature 408:453–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gentilli, J. 1972. Thermal anomalies in the Eastern indian Ocean. Nature Physical Science 238:93–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillespie, R. 1977. Sydney University natural radiocarbon measurements IV. Radiocarbon 19(1):101–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, AL. 1986. Interocean exchange of themocline water. Journal of Geophysical Research 91:5037–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, AL. 1995. When is “appearance” reality? Indonesian flowthrough is primarily derived from N. Pacific water masses. Journal of Physical Oceanography 25:1560–7.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ingram, L, Southon, JR. 1996. Reservoir ages in eastern Pacific coastal and estuarine water. Radiocarbon 38(3):573–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
JGR. 1996. Special session: Pacific low-latitude western boundary currents and the Indonesian flowthrough. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:12209–488.Google Scholar
Konishi, KT, Tanaka, T, Sakanoue, M. 1982. Secular variation of radiocarbon concentrations in seawater: Scle-rochronological approach. In: Gomez, ED, editor. Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium. Volume 1. Manila: Marine Science Center, University of the Phillipines. p 181–5.Google Scholar
Levitus, S, Burgett, R, Boyer, T P. 1994. World ocean atlas volume 3: salinity. NOAA Altas NESDIS 3. Washington DC: US Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
Loyd, DH, Vogel, JS, Trumbore, S. 1991. Lithium contamination in AMS measurements of 14C. Radiocarbon 33(3):297301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michida, Y, Yoritaki, H. 1996. Surface currents in the area of the Indo-Pacific flowthrough and in the tropical Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:12475–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rhodes, EG, Polach, HA, Thom, BG, Wilson, SR. 1980. Age structure of Holocene coastal sediments: Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Radiocarbon 22(3):718–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitz, WJ. 1995. On the interbasin-scale thermohaline circulation. Reviews of Geophysics 33:151–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schott, F, Swallow, JC, Fieux, M. 1990. The Somali Current at the equator: annual cycle of currents and transports in the upper 1000m and connection to neighbouring latitudes. Deep Sea Research 37:11825–48.Google Scholar
Southon, JR, Caffee, MW, Davis, JC, Moore, TL, Proctor, ID, Schumacher, B, Vogel, JS. 1990. The new LLNL AMS spectrometer. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B52:301–5.Google Scholar
Stramma, L, Lutjeharms, JRE. 1997. The flow field of the subtropical gyre of the South Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 102:5513–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Polach, H. 1977. Reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Braziunas, TF. 1993. Modeling atmospheric 14C influences and 14C ages of marine samples to 10,000 BC. Radiocarbon 35(1):137–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Ostlund, HG. 1983. GEOSECS Indian Ocean and Mediterranean radiocarbon. Radiocarbon 25(1):129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Pearson, GW, Braziunas, TF. 1986. Radiocarbon age calibration of marine samples back to 9000 cal BP. Radiocarbon 28(2B):9801021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Reimer, PJ, Braziunas, TF. 1998. High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples. Radiocarbon 40(3):1127–51. (Data available on the Internet at Scholar
Swallow, JC. 1984. Some aspects of the physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Deep Sea Research 31:639–50.Google Scholar
Tchernia, P. 1980. Descriptive regional oceanography. Pergamon, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Toggweiler, R, Dixon, K, Broecker, WS. 1991. The Peru upwelling and the ventilation of the South Pacific thermocline. Journal of Geophysical Research 96:20467–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toole, JM, Warren, BA 1993. A hydrographic section across the subtropical South Indian Ocean, Deep Sea Research 40:19732019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogel, JS, Nelson, DE, Southon, JR. 1987. 14C background levels in an AMS system. Radiocarbon 29(3):323–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
von Rad, U, Schaff, M, Michels, KH, Berger, WH, Siricko, F. 1999. A 5000-yr record of climate change in varved sediments from the oxygen minimum zone off Pakistan, northeastern Arabian Sea. Quaternary Research 51:3953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wrytki, K. 1973. Physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean. In: Zeitschel, B, editor. The biology of the Indian Ocean. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 1836.Google Scholar
You, Y. 1997. Seasonal variations of themocline circulation and ventilation in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 102:10391–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Marine Reservoir Corrections for the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Marine Reservoir Corrections for the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Marine Reservoir Corrections for the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *