Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59df476f6b-9sq5k Total loading time: 0.656 Render date: 2021-05-17T14:43:52.042Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Paleoclimate record in the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Abdou Abouelmagd
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5200, USA Department of Geology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt
Mohamed Sultan
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5200, USA
Neil C. Sturchio
Affiliation:
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059, USA
Farouk Soliman
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt
Mohamed Rashed
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt
Mohamed Ahmed
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5200, USA Department of Geology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt
Alan E. Kehew
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5200, USA
Adam Milewski
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Kyle Chouinard
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5200, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Sixteen groundwater samples collected from production wells tapping Lower Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone and fractured basement aquifers in Sinai were analyzed for their stable isotopic compositions, dissolved noble gas concentrations (recharge temperatures), tritium activities, and 14C abundances. Results define two groups of samples: Group I has older ages, lower recharge temperatures, and depleted isotopic compositions (adjusted 14C model age: 24,000–31,000 yr BP; δ18O: − 9.59‰ to − 6.53‰; δ2H: − 72.9‰ to − 42.9‰; < 1 TU; and recharge T: 17.5–22.0°C) compared to Group II (adjusted 14C model age: 700–4700 yr BP; δ18O: − 5.89‰ to − 4.84‰; δ2H: − 34.5‰ to − 24.1‰; < 1 to 2.78 TU; and recharge T: 20.6–26.2°C). Group II samples have isotopic compositions similar to those of average modern rainfall, with larger d-excess values than Group I waters, and locally measurable tritium activity (up to 2.8 TU). These observations are consistent with (1) the Nubian Aquifer being largely recharged prior to and/or during the Last Glacial Maximum (represented by Group I), possibly through the intensification of paleowesterlies; and (2) continued sporadic recharge during the relatively dry and warmer interglacial period (represented by Group II) under conditions similar to those of the present.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
University of Washington

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Abdallah, A.M., Adindani, A., and Fahmy, N. Stratigraphy of Upper Paleozoic Rocks, Western Side of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. (1963). Egyptian Geological Survey, 118.Google Scholar
Abouelmagd, A., Sultan, M., Milewski, A., Kehew, A.E., Sturchio, N.C., Soliman, F., Krishnamurthy, R.V., and Cutrim, E. Toward a better understanding of palaeoclimatic regimes that recharged the fossil aquifers in North Africa: inferences from stable isotope and remote sensing data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 329–330, (2012). 137149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aeschbach-Hertig, W., (2006). Environmental tracer study of groundwater recharge near the Nile Delta, Egypt. DPG-Tagung, Heidelberg., unpublished report.Google Scholar
Aeschbach-Hertig, W., El-Gamal, H., Dahab, K., Kipfer, R., and Bonani, G. Environmental tracer study of groundwater recharge near the Nile Delta, Egypt. Determining paleotemperature and other variables by using an error-weighted, nonlinear inversion of noble gas concentrations in water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63, (2006). 23152336.Google Scholar
Aeschbach-Hertig, W., El-Gamal, H., Dahab, K., Kipfer, R., Hajdas, I., and Bonani, G. Using environmental tracers to assess groundwater resources in reclamation areas of Egypt. Geophysical Research Abstracts 8, (2006). A-05515 Google Scholar
Aeschbach-Hertig, W., El-Gamal, H., Dahab, K., Friedrich, R., Kipfer, R., and Hajdase, I. Identifying and dating the origin of groundwater resources in reclamation areas of Egypt. Advances in Isotope Hydrology and its Role in Sustainable Water Resources Management. (2007). International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna. 395403.Google Scholar
Almogi-Labin, A., Bar-Matthews, M., and Ayalon, A. Climate variability in the Levant and northeast Africa during the Late Quaternary based on marine and land records. Goren-Inbar, N., and Speth, J.D. Human Paleoecology in the Levantine Corridor. (2004). Oxbow Press, Oxford. 117134.Google Scholar
Alsharhan, A.S., and Salah, M.G. Geologic setting and hydrocarbon potential of North Sinai, Egypt. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 44, (1996). 615631.Google Scholar
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Gilmour, M., Matthews, A., and Hawkesworth, C.J. Sea–land oxygen isotopic relationships from planktonic foraminifera and speleothems in the Eastern Mediterranean region and their implication for paleorainfall during interglacial intervals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, (2003). 31813199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartov, Y., Stein, M., Enzel, Y., Agnon, A., and Reches, Z. Lake levels and sequence stratigraphy of Lake Lisan, the late Pleistocene precursor of the Dead Sea. Quaternary Research 57, (2002). 921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartov, Y., Goldstein, S.L., Stein, M., and Enzel, Y. Catastrophic arid episodes in the east Mediterranean linked with the Atlantic Heinrich events. Geology 31, (2003). 439442.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O., and Meadow, R. The origins of agriculture in the Near East. Price, T.D., and Gebauer, A.B. The Last Hunters—First Farmers: Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture. (1995). School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 3994.Google Scholar
Blasband, B., White, S., Brooijmans, P., De Boorder, H., and Visser, W. Late Proterozoic extensional collapse in the Arabian–Nubian Shield. Journal of the Geological Society of London 157, (2000). 615628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, G., Broecker, W., Johnson, S., McManus, J., Labeyrie, L., Jouzel, J., and Bonani, G.B. Correlation between climate records from North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice. Nature 365, (1993). 507508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brookes, I.A. Geomorphic indicators of Holocene winds in Egypt's Western Desert. Geomorphology 56, (2003). 155166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cherkinsky, A.E., Culp, R.A., Dvoracek, D.K., and Noakes, J.E. Status of the AMS facility at the University of Georgia. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research 268, (2010). 867870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, P.U., Dyke, A.S., Sakun, J.D., Carlson, A.E., Clark, J., Wohlfarth, B., Mitrovica, J.X., Hostetler, S.W., and McCabe, A.M. The last glacial maximum. Science 325, (2009). 710714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coplen, T.B. New guidelines for reporting stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope-ratio data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, (1996). 33593360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craig, H. Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science 133, (1961). 17021703.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edmunds, W.M., Fellman, E., and Goni, I.B. Lakes, groundwater and paleohydrology in the Sahel of NE Nigerai: evidence from hydrogeochemistry. Journal of the Geological Society of London 156, (1999). 45355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA), Climatic Atlas of Egypt. (1996). Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Ministry of Transport and Communications, Cairo, Egypt.Google Scholar
Fairbanks, R.G., Mortlock, R.A., Chiu, T.-C., Cao, L., Kaplan, A., Guilderson, T.P., Fairbanks, T.W., Bloom, A.L., Grootes, P.M., and Nadeau, M.-J. Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, (2005). 17811796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fontes, J.-C., and Garnier, J.-M. Determination of the initial 14C activity of the total dissolved carbon: a review of the existing models and a new approach. Water Resources Research 15, (1979). 399413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frumkin, A., Ford, D.C., and Schwarcz, H.P. Paleoclimate and vegetation of the last glacial cycles in Jerusalem from a speleothem record. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, (2000). 19.Google Scholar
Gat, J.R., Mazor, E., and Tzur, Y. The stable isotope composition of mineral waters in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. Journal of Hydrology 7, (1969). 334352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geb, M. Factors favouring precipitation in North Africa: seen from the viewpoint of present-day meteorology. Global and Planetary Change 26, (2000). 8596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gheith, H., and Sultan, M. Construction of a hydrologic model for estimating wadi runoff and groundwater recharge in the Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Hydrology 263, (2002). 3655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guendouz, A., Moulla, A.S., Edmunds, W.M., Shand, P., Poole, J., Zouari, K., and Mamou, A. Palaeoclimatic information contained in groundwater of the Grand ERG Oriental, North Africa. Isotope Techniques in the Study of Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. (1998). IAEA, Vienna. 555571.Google Scholar
Hesse, K.H., Hissese, A., Kheir, O., Schnacker, E., Schneider, M., and Thorweihe, U. Hydrogeological investigations in the Nubian Aquifer system, Eastern Sahara. Kilitzsch, E., and Schranck, E. Research in Egypt and Sudan. (1987). Dietrich Reimer, Berlin. 397464.Google Scholar
Himida, H. The Nubian artesian basin, its regional hydrogeological aspects and palaeohydrological reconstruction. Journal of Hydrology 9, (1970). 89116.Google Scholar
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), , Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization, Electronic Retrieval (WISER), Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization, and Electronic Retrieval. 7th ed. (2010). Google Scholar
Issar, A. Climate Changes During the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems. (2003). Elsevier Inc., Cambridge, United Kingdom. 144 Google Scholar
Issar, A. Climate change as a draw bridge between Africa and the Middle East. Global and Planetary Change 72, (2010). 451454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Issar, A., and Zohar, M. Climate Change—Environment and Civilization in the Middle East. (2004). Springer, Berlin. 252 Google Scholar
Issar, A., Bein, A., and Michaeli, A. On the ancient water of the Upper Nubian Sandstone aquifer in central Sinai and southern Israel. Journal of Hydrology 17, (1972). 353374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), South Sinai Groundwater Resources Study in the Arab Republic of Egypt, Tokyo, Japan. (1999). 220 Google Scholar
Kipfer, R., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Peeters, F., and Stute, M. Noble gases in lakes and ground waters. Porcelli, D., Ballentine, C., and Wieler, R. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Noble gases in Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. (2002). Mineralogical Society of America and Geochemical Society, Washington, DC. 615700.Google Scholar
Klump, S., Tomonaga, Y., Kienzler, P., Kinzelbach, W., Baumann, T., Imboden, D.M., and Kipfer, R. Field experiments yield new insights into gas exchange and excess air formation in natural porous media. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, (2007). 13851397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehmann, K.K., Berden, G., and Engeln, R. An Introduction to Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometry. Berden, G., and Engeln, R. Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometry Techniques and Applications. (2009). John Wiley & Sons Ltd., United Kingdom. 126.Google Scholar
Lisker, S., Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Porat, R., and Frumkin, A. Stromatolites in caves of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment: implications to latest Pleistocene lake levels and tectonic subsidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, (2009). 8092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manning, A.H., and Solomon, D.K. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge. Journal of Hydrology 275, (2003). 194207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazor, E. Paleotemperatures and other hydrological parameters deduced from noble gases dissolved in groundwaters; Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 36, (1972). 13211336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Climate Data Center (NCDC), Surface Data, Global Summary of the Day and Hourly Global. URL: http://www7.ncdc.noaa.gov/CDO/cdo (2012). Google Scholar
Osmond, J.K., and Dabous, A.A. Timing and intensity of groundwater movement during Egyptian Sahara pluvial periods by U-series analysis of secondary U in ores and carbonates. Quaternary Research 61, (2004). 8594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parkhurst, D.L., and Charlton, S.R. NetpathXL—An Excel® Interface to the Program NETPATH: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6–A26. (2008). (11 pp.)Google Scholar
Patterson, L.J. Chlorine-36 and stable chlorine isotopes in the Nubian Aquifer, Western Desert, Egypt. Earth and Environmental Sciences. (2003). University of Illinois, Chicago. 81 Google Scholar
Pinti, D.L., and Van Drom, E. PALEOTEMP: a Mathematica® program for evaluating paleotemperatures from the concentration of atmosphere-derived noble gases in groundwater. Computers & Geosciences 24, (1988). 3341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plummer, L.N., and Sprinkle, C.L. Radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA. Hydrogeology Journal 9, (2001). 127150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plummer, L.N., Michel, R.L., Thurman, E.M., and Glynn, P.D. Environmental tracers for age dating young ground water. Regional ground-water quality. (1993). Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 255294.Google Scholar
Plummer, L.N., Prestemon, E.C., and Parkhurst, D.L. An interactive code (NETPATH) for modeling net geochemical reactions along a flow path Version 2.0. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94–4169. (1994). Google Scholar
Prell, W.L., and Kutzbach, J.E. Monsoon variability over the past 150,000 years. Journal of Geophysical Research 92, (1987). 84118425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossignol-Strick, M. African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation. Nature 304, (1983). 4649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Said, R. The Geology of Egypt. (1962). Elsevier, Amsterdam. 377 Google Scholar
Said, R. Explanatory Notes to Accompany the Geological Map of Egypt. (1971). Geological Survey of Egypt, Cairo. 123 Google Scholar
Sanford, W.E. Correcting for diffusion in carbon-14 dating of groundwater. Groundwater 35, (1997). 357361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shata, A. Hydrogeology of the Great Nubian Sandstone basin, Egypt. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 15, (1982). 127133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solomon, D.K., Cook, P.G., and Sanford, W.E. Dissolved gases in subsurface hydrology. Kendall, C., and McDonnell, J.J. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology. (1998). Elsevier, Amsterdam. 291318.Google Scholar
Sonntag, C., Klitzsch, E., Lohnert, E.P., El Shazly, E.M., Munnich, K.O., Junghans, C., Thorweihe, U., Weistroffer, K., and Swailem, F.M. Paleoclimatic Information from Deuterium and Oxygen-18 in Carbon-14-dated North Saharian groundwaters. (1978). Isotope Hydrology International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna. 569581.Google Scholar
Stern, R.J., and Kroner, A. Late Precambrian crustal evolution in NE Sudan: isotopic and geochronologic constraints. Journal of Geology 101, (1993). 555574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M., and Polach, H.A. Reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19, (1977). 355363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sturchio, N.C. et al. One million year old groundwater in the Sahara revealed by krypton-81 and chlorine-36. Geophysical Research Letters 31, (2004). L05503 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stute, M., and Schlosser, P. Principles and applications of the noble gas paleo-thermometer. Swart, P.K., Lohmann, K.C., and Savin, S. Climatic Change in Continental Isotopic Records. Geophysical Monograph Series (1993). American Geophysical Union, 89100.Google Scholar
Stute, M., Clark, J.F., Schlosser, P., and Broecker, W.S. A 30,000 yr continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Quaternary Research 43, (1995). 209220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sultan, M., Arvidson, R.E., Duncan, I.J., Stern, R.J., and El Kaliouby, B. Extension of the Najd shear system from Saudi Arabia to the central Eastern Desert of Egypt based on integrated field and Landsat observations. Tectonics 7, (1988). 12911306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sultan, M., Sturchio, N., Hassan, F.A., Hamdan, M.A.R., Mahmood, A.M., El Alfy, Z., and Stein, T. Precipitation source inferred from stable isotopic composition of Pleistocene groundwater and carbonate deposits in the Western Desert of Egypt. Quaternary Research 48, (1997). 2937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sultan, M., Metwally, S., Milewski, A., Becker, D., Ahmed, M., Sauck, W., Soliman, F., Sturchio, N., Yan, E., Rashed, M., Wagdy, A., Becker, R., and Welton, B. Modern recharge to fossil aquifers: geochemical, geophysical, and modeling constraints. Journal of Hydrology 403, (2011). 1424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamers, M.A. Validity of radiocarbon dates on groundwater. Geophysical Surveys 2, (1975). 217239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorweihe, U. Nubian aquifer system. Said, R. Geology of Egypt. (1990). Balkema, Rotterdam. 601611.Google Scholar
Torfstein, A., Goldstein, S.L., Stein, M., and Enzel, Y. Impacts of abrupt climate changes in the Levant from last glacial Dead Sea levels. Quaternary Science Reviews 69, (2013). 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
United States Geological Survey (USGS), USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GLOVIS). URL: http://glovis.usgs.gov (2003). Google Scholar
Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Schilman, B., Gilmour, M., Hawkesworth, C.J., Frumkin, A., Kaufman, A., and Matthews, A. Paleoclimate reconstruction based on the timing of speleothem growth and oxygen and carbon isotope composition in a cave located in the rain shadow in Israel. Quaternary Research 59, (2003). 139284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Matthews, A., Frumkin, A., Dayan, U., Halicz, L., Almogi-Labin, A., and Schilman, B. Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo–Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 249, (2006). 384399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogel, J.C. Investigation of groundwater flow with radiocarbon. Isotopes in Hydrology. (1967). International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. 255368.Google Scholar
Vogel, J.S., Southon, J.R., Nelson, D.E., and Brown, T.A. Performance of catalytically condensed carbon for use in accelerator mass spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 5, (1984). 289293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss, R.F. Piggyback samplers for dissolved gas studies on sealed water samples. Deep-Sea Research 15, (1968). 695699.Google Scholar
Yan, Z., and Petit-Maire, N. The last 140 Ka in the Afro–Asian arid/semi-arid transitional zone. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 110, (1994). 217233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Paleoclimate record in the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Paleoclimate record in the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Paleoclimate record in the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *