Hostname: page-component-6b989bf9dc-md2j5 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-12T21:29:02.544Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The environmental impact of a pre-Columbian city based on geochemical insights from lake sediment cores recovered near Cahokia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 December 2018

David P. Pompeani*
Geology and Environmental Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA Department of Geography, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
Aubrey L. Hillman
Geology and Environmental Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA School of Geosciences, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504, USA
Matthew S. Finkenbinder
Geology and Environmental Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Science, Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania 18766, USA
Daniel J. Bain
Geology and Environmental Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
Alexander Correa-Metrio
Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 02376, México
Katherine M. Pompeani
Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
Mark B. Abbott
Geology and Environmental Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
*Corresponding author at: Department of Geography, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA. E-mail address: (D.P. Pompeani).


Cahokia is the largest documented urban settlement in the pre-Columbian United States. Archaeological evidence suggests that the city, located near what is now East St. Louis, Illinois, began to rapidly expand starting around AD 1050. At its height, Cahokia extended across 1000 ha and included large plazas, timber palisade walls, and hundreds of monumental earthen mounds. Following several centuries of occupation, the city experienced a period of gradual abandonment from about AD 1200 to 1400. Here, we present geochemical data from a 1500-year-old sediment core from nearby Horseshoe Lake that records watershed impacts associated with the growth and decline of Cahokia. Sedimentary analysis shows a distinctive 24-cm-thick, gray, fine-grained layer formed between AD 1150 and 1220 and characterized by low carbonate δ13C, elevated sorbed metal concentrations, and higher organic matter δ15N. The deposition of this layer is contemporaneous with archaeological evidence of increased agricultural activity, earthen mound construction, and higher populations surrounding the lake. We hypothesize that these human impacts increased soil erosion, producing new sediment sources from deeper soil horizons, and shifted dissolved transport to the lake, producing lower carbonate δ13C values, higher concentrations of lead, copper, potassium, and aluminum, and increased δ15N, likely due to contributions of enriched nitrogen from sewage.

Research Article
Copyright © University of Washington. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Abbott, M.B., Stafford, T.W., 1996. Radiocarbon geochemistry of ancient and modern lakes, Arctic Lakes, Baffin Island. Quaternary Research 45, 300311.Google Scholar
Abbott, M.B., Wolfe, A.P., 2003. Intensive Pre-Incan metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from the Bolivian Andes. Science 301, 18931895.Google Scholar
Anonymous, , 1882. History of Madison. W.R. Brink & Co., Illinois.Google Scholar
Baires, S.E., Baltus, M.R., Buchanan, M.E., 2015. Correlation does not equal causation: questioning the Great Cahokia Flood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112, E3753.Google Scholar
Beach, T., Luzzadder-Beach, S., Cook, D., Dunning, N., Kennett, D.J., Krause, S., Terry, R., Trein, D., Valdez, F., 2015. Ancient Maya impacts on the Earth’s surface: an Early Anthropocene analog? Quaternary Science Reviews 124, 130.Google Scholar
Benson, L., Pauketat, T.R., Cook, E., 2009. Cahokia’s boom and bust in the context of climate change. American Antiquity 74, 467483.Google Scholar
Bettis, A.E., 2003. Last Glacial loess in the conterminous USA. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 19071946.Google Scholar
Binford, M.W., 1990. Calculation and uncertainty analysis of Pb-210 dates for PIRLA project lake sediment cores. Journal of Paleolimnology 3, 253267.Google Scholar
Blaauw, M., 2010. Methods and code for “classical” age-modelling of radiocarbon sequences. Quaternary Geochronology 5, 512518.Google Scholar
Bloom, P.R., 1981. Metal-Organic Matter Interactions in Soil. ASA Special Publication. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
Booth, D.L., Koldehoff, B., 1999. The emergency watershed project, archeological investigations for the 1998 Metro East ditch cleanout project in Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. In: Emerson, T.E. (Ed.). Illinois Transportation Archeological Research Program, Research Reports, Vol. 62. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 417 p. University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign.Google Scholar
Brenner, M., 1983. Paleolimnology of the Peten Lake district, Guatemala. Hydrobiologia 103, 205210.Google Scholar
Brenner, M., Rosenmeier, M.F., Hodell, D.A., Curtis, J.H., 2002. Paleolimnology of the Maya Lowlands; long-term perspectives on interactions among climate, environment, and humans. Ancient Mesoamerica 13, 141157.Google Scholar
Brugam, R., Bala, I., Martin, J., Vermillion, B., Retzlaff, W., 2003. The sedimentary record of environmental contamination in Horseshoe Lake, Madison County, Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 96, 205217.Google Scholar
Chastain, M.L., Deymier-Black, A.C., Kelly, J.E., Brown, J.A., Dunand, D.C., 2011. Metallurgical analysis of copper artifacts from Cahokia. Journal of Archaeological Science 38, 17271736.Google Scholar
Clark, J.S., 1988. Particle motion and the theory of charcoal analysis: source area, transport, deposition, and sampling. Quaternary Research 30, 6780.Google Scholar
Cooke, C.A., Abbott, M.B., Wolfe, A.P., Kittleson, J.L., 2007. A millenium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes. Environmental Science and Technology 41, 34693474.Google Scholar
Cooke, C.A., Bindler, R., 2015. Lake sediment records of preindustrial metal pollution. In: Blais, J.M., Rosen, M.R., Smol, J.P. (Eds.), Environmental Contaminants: Using Natural Archives to Track Sources and Long-Term Trends of Pollution. Springer Netherlands.Google Scholar
Craine, J.M., Elmore, A.J., Aidar, M.P., Bustamante, M., Dawson, T.E., Hobbie, E.A., Kahmen, A., et al., 2009. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability. New Phytologist 183, 980992.Google Scholar
Cridlebaugh, P.A., 1984. American Indian and Euro-American Impact on Holocene Vegetation in the Lower Little Tennessee River Valley, East Tennessee. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, p. 225.Google Scholar
Dalan, R.A., 1997. The construction of Mississippian Cahokia, In: Pauketat, T.R., Emerson, T.E. (Eds.), Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the Mississippian World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp. 89102.Google Scholar
Dalan, R.A., Holley, G.R., Woods, W.I., Watters, H.W. Jr., Koepke, J.A., 2003. Envisioning Cahokia: A Landscape Perspective. Northerin Illinois Unversity Press, DeKalb.Google Scholar
Deevey, E.S., Gross, M.S., Hutchinson, G.E., Kraybill, H.L., 1954. The natural C-14 contents of materials from hard-water lakes. Geology 40, 285288.Google Scholar
Delcourt, P.A., Delcourt, H.R., 2004. Prehistoric Native Americans and Ecological Change. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Dubois, K.D., Lee, D., Veizer, J., 2010. Isotopic constraints on alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, and atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes in the Mississippi River. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, 111, G02018.Google Scholar
Dumont, E., Harrison, J.A., Kroeze, C., Bakker, E.J., Seitzinger, S.P., 2005. Global distribution and sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export to the coastal zone: results from a spatially explicit, global model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19, 113, GB4S02.Google Scholar
Eichler, A., Brütsch, S., Olivier, S., Papina, T., Schwikowski, M., 2009. A 750 year ice core record of past biogenic emissions from Siberian boreal forests. Geophysical Research Letters 36, 15, L18813.Google Scholar
Elliott, E.M., Brush, G.S., 2006. Sedimented organic nitrogen isotopes in freshwater wetlands record long-term changes in watershed nitrogen source and land usesotopes in freshwater wetlands. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 29102916.Google Scholar
Elliott, E.M., Kendall, C., Boyer, E.W., Burns, D.A., Lear, G.G., Golden, H.E., Harlin, K., Bytnerowicz, A., Butler, T.J., Glatz, R., 2009. Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source contributions to landscape nitrogen deposition. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, 115, G04020.Google Scholar
Emerson, T.E., Hedman, K.M., 2016. The dangers of diversity: the consolidation and dissolution of Cahokia, Native North America’s first urban polity. In: Faulseit, R.K. (Ed.), Beyond Collapse: Archaeological Perspectives on Resilience, Revitalization and Transformation in Complex Societies. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, pp. 147175.Google Scholar
Evans, R.D., 2007. Soil nitrogen isotope composition, In: Michener, R.H., Lajtha, K. (Eds.), Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science. 2nd ed. Blackwell, Malden, MA.Google Scholar
Faegri, K., Iversen, J., 1989. Textbook of Pollen Analysis. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
Farquhar, R.M., Walthall, J.A., Hancock, R.G.V., 1995. 18th century lead smelting in Central North America: evidence from lead isotope and INAA measurments. Journal of Archaeological Science 22, 639648.Google Scholar
Felix, J.D., Elliott, E.M., 2013. The agricultural history of human-nitrogen interactions as recorded in ice core δ15N-NO3. Geophysical Research Letters 40, 16421646.Google Scholar
Fleury, S., Malaizé, B., Giraudeau, J., Galop, D., Bout-Roumazeilles, V., Martinez, P., Charlier, K., Carbonel, P., Arnauld, M.-C., 2014. Impacts of Mayan land use on Laguna Tuspán watershed (Petén, Guatemala) as seen through clay and ostracode analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 49, 372382.Google Scholar
Fortier, A., Emerson, T.E., McElrath, D., 2006. Calibrating and reassessing American bottom culture history. Southeastern Archaeology 25, 170211.Google Scholar
Fowler, M.J., 1997. The Cahokia Atlas, Revised: A Historical Atlas of Cahokia Archaeology. Studies in Archaeology No. 2. Illinois Transportation Archeological Research Program, University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign.Google Scholar
Gilli, A., Anselmetti, F.S., Glur, L., Wirth, S.B., 2013. Lake sediments as archives of recurrence rates and intensities of past flood events. In: Beniston, M. (Ed.), Dating Torrential Processes on Fans and Cones. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.Google Scholar
Graney, J.R., Halliday, A.N., Keeler, G.J., Nriagu, J.O., Robbins, J.A., Norton, S.A., 1995. Isotopic record of lead pollution in lake sediments from the northeastern United States. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59, 17151728.Google Scholar
Grimley, D.A., Phillips, A.C., Lepley, S.W., 2007. Surficial geology of Monks Mound Quadrangle, Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. In: Illinois State Geological Survey (Ed.), Illinois Preliminary Geologic Map. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
Hammarlund, D., Aravena, R., Barnekow, L., Buchardt, B., Possnert, G., 1997. Multi-component carbon isotope evidence of early Holocene environmental change and carbon-flow pathways from a hard-water lake in northern Sweden. Journal of Paleolimnology 18, 219233.Google Scholar
Heiri, O., Lotter, A.F., Lemcke, G., 2001. Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results. Journal of Paleolimnology 25, 101110.Google Scholar
Helios Rybicka, E., Calmano, W., Breeger, A., 1995. Heavy metals sorption/desorption on competing clay minerals; an experimental study. Applied Clay Science 9, 369381.Google Scholar
Hill, T.E., Evans, R.L., Bell, J.S., 1981. Water Quality Assessment of Horseshoe Lake. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report, Peoria.Google Scholar
Hillman, A.L., Yu, J., Abbott, M.B., Cooke, C.A., Bain, D.J., Steinman, B.A., 2014. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China. Quaternary Science Reviews 98, 2432.Google Scholar
Hilton, J., Davison, W., Ochsenbein, U., 1985. A mathematical model for analysis of sediment core data: implications for enrichment factor calculations and trace-metal transport mechanisms. Chemical Geology 48, 281291.Google Scholar
Hong, S., Candelone, J.P., Patterson, C.C., Boutron, C.F., 1994. Greenland Ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two milennia ago by the Greek and Roman civilization. Science 265, 18411843.Google Scholar
Illinois EPA, 2009. Cahokia Canal Watershed TMDL. Sprinfield, Illinois, Accessed: November 27, 2018. Scholar
Iseminger, W.R., 2010. Cahokia Mounds: America’s First City. History Press, Charleston, SC.Google Scholar
Iseminger, W.R., Pauketat, T.R., Koldehoff, L.S., Kelly, L.S., Blake, L., 1990. The Archeology of the Cahokia Palisade, Part I. East Palisade Excavations. Illinois Cultural Resource Study 14. Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield.Google Scholar
Jacob, J.S., 1995. Ancient Maya wetland agricultural fields in Cobweb Swamp, Belize: construction, chronology, and function. Journal of Field Archaeology 22, 175190.Google Scholar
Kehrwald, N., Zangrando, R., Gabrielli, P., Jaffrezo, J.-L., Boutron, C., Barbante, C., Gambaro, A., 2012. Levoglucosan as a specific marker of fire events in Greenland snow. Tellus B 64, 19, 18196.Google Scholar
Kelly, J., Brown, J., 2010. Just in time: dating Mound 34 at Cahokia. Illinois Antiquity 45, 38.Google Scholar
Kelly, J.E., 1997. Stirling-Phase sociopolitical activity at East St. Louis and Cahokia. In: Pauketat, T.R., Emerson, T.E. (Eds.), Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the Mississippian World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp. 141166.Google Scholar
Kleeman, M.J., Schauer, J.J., Cass, G.R., 1999. Size and composition distribution of fine particulate matter emitted from wood burning, meat charbroiling and cigarettes. Environmental Science & Technology 33, 35163523.Google Scholar
Knox, J.C., 1977. Human impacts on Wisconsin stream channels. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 67, 323342.Google Scholar
Kovarik, W., 2005. Ethyl-leaded gasoline: how a classic occupational disease became an international public health disaster. International Journal of Occupation Environmental Health 11, 384397.Google Scholar
Krumm, R.J., 1984. A Slope Stability Problem: Analysis of a Slump-Type Landslide. Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, p. 137.Google Scholar
Lane, C.S., Cummings, K.E., Clark, J.J., 2010. Maize pollen deposition in modern lake sediments: a case study from Northeastern Wisconsin. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 159, 177187.Google Scholar
Larson, T.V., Koenig, J.Q., 1994. Wood smoke: emissions and noncancer respiratory effects. Annual Review in Public Health 15, 133156.Google Scholar
Lee, C.L., Qi, S.H., Zhang, G., Luo, C.L., Zhao, L.Y.L., Li, X.D., 2008. Seven thousand years of records on the mining and utilization of metals from lake sediments in central China. Environmental Science & Technology 42, 47324738.Google Scholar
Lentz, D.L., 2000. Imperfect Balance: Landscape Transformations in the Precolumbian Americas. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Li, H.C., Ku, T.L., 1997. δ13C-δ18O covariance as a paleohydrological indicator for closed-basin lakes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 133, 6980.Google Scholar
Lopinot, N., Woods, W., 1993. Wood Overexploitation and the Collapse of Cahokia. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.Google Scholar
March, D.D., 1967. The History of Missouri. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
Martinez-Cortizas, A., Garcia-Rodeja, E., Pombal, X.P., Munoz, J.C.N., Weiss, D., Cheburkin, A.K., 2002. Atmospheric Pb deposition in Spain during the last 4600 years recorded by two ombrotrophic peat bogs and implications for the use of peat as archive. Science of the Total Environment 292, 3344.Google Scholar
McLauchlan, K., 2003. Plant cultivation and forest clearance by prehistoric North Americans: pollen evidence from Fort Ancient, Ohio, USA. The Holocene 13, 557566.Google Scholar
Meeks, S.C., Anderson, D.G., 2013. Drought, subsistence stress, and population dynamics: assessing Mississippian abandoment of the Vacant Quarter. In: Wingard, J.D., Hayes, S.E. (Eds.), Soils, Climate, & Society. Archaeological Investigations in Ancient America. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
Meyers, P.A., 1997. Organic geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic, paleolimnologic, and paleoclimatic processes. Organic Geochemistry 27, 213250.Google Scholar
Milner, G.R., 1998. The Cahokia Chiefdom: The Archeology of a Mississippian Society. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Munoz, S.E., Gruley, K.E., Fike, D.A., Schroeder, S., Williams, J.W., 2015a. Reply to Baires et al.: Shifts in Mississippi River flood regime remain a contributing factor to Cahokia’s emergence and decline. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112, E3754.Google Scholar
Munoz, S.E., Gruley, K.E., Massie, A., Fike, D.A., Schroeder, S., Williams, J.W., 2015b. Cahokia’s emergence and decline coincided with shifts of flood frequency on the Mississippi River. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112, 63196324.Google Scholar
Munoz, S.E., Mladenoff, D.J., Schroeder, S., Williams, J.W., Bush, M., 2014a. Defining the spatial patterns of historical land use associated with the indigenous societies of eastern North America. Journal of Biogeography 41, 21952210.Google Scholar
Munoz, S.E., Schroeder, S., Fike, D.A., Williams, J.W., 2014b. A record of sustained prehistoric and historic land use from the Cahokia region, Illinois, USA. Geology 42, 499502.Google Scholar
Murty, D., Kirschbaum, M.U.F., McMurtrie, R.E., McGilvray, H., 2002. Does conversion of forest to agricultural land change soil carbon and nitrogen? A review of the literature. Global Change Biology 8, 105123.Google Scholar
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2014. St. Louis Mississippi River Gauge—EADM7. Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service. Accessed: November 27, 2018Google Scholar
O’Connell, M., Ghilardi, B., Morrison, L., 2017. A 7000-year record of environmental change, including early farming impact, based on lake-sediment geochemistry and pollen data from County Sligo, western Ireland. Quaternary Research 81, 3549.Google Scholar
Ollendorf, A.L., 1993. Changing Landscapes in the American Bottoms (USA): An Interdisciplinary Investigation with an Emphasis on the Late-Prehistoric and Early-Historic Periods. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
Osleger, D.A., Heyvaert, A.C., Stoner, J.S., Verosub, K.L., 2009. Lacustrine turbidites as indicators of Holocene storminess and climate: Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada. Journal of Paleolimnology 42, 103122.Google Scholar
Pauketat, T.R., 1998. Refiguring the archaeology of Greater Cahokia. Journal of Archaeological Research 6, 4589.Google Scholar
Pauketat, T.R., 2003. Resettled farmers and the making of a Mississippian polity. American Antiquity 68, 7398.Google Scholar
Pauketat, T.R., Fortier, A., Alt, S., Emerson, T., 2013. A Mississippian conflagration at East St. Louis and its political-historical implications. Journal of Field Archaeology 38, 210226.Google Scholar
Pauketat, T.R., Lopinot, N.H., 1997. Cahokian population dynamics. In: Pauketat, T.R., Emerson, T.E. (Eds.), Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the Mississippian World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp. 103123.Google Scholar
Peacock, E., Haag, W.R., Warren, M.L. Jr., 2005. Prehistoric decline in freshwater mussels coincident with the advent of maize agriculture. Conservation Biology 19, 547551.Google Scholar
Peterson, D.H., 2003. Red metal poundings and the “Neubauer Process”: Copper Culture metallurgical technology. Central States Archaeological Journal 50, 102105.Google Scholar
Pompeani, D.P., Abbott, M.B., Bain, D.J., DePasqual, S., Finkenbinder, M.S., 2015. Copper mining on Isle Royale 6500–5400 years ago identified using sediment geochemistry from McCargoe Cove, Lake Superior. The Holocene 25, 253262.Google Scholar
Pompeani, D.P., Abbott, M.B., Steinman, B.A., Bain, D.J., 2013. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America. Environmental Science & Technology 47, 55455552.Google Scholar
Rasband, W.S., 2005. ImageJ. Version 1.32j, 1.32 ed [computer software]. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
Renberg, I., Persson, M.W., Emteryd, O., 1994. Pre-industrial atmospheric lead contamination detected in Swedish lake sediments. Nature 368, 323326.Google Scholar
Riley, T.J., Gregory, G.R., Bareis, C.J., Fortier, A.C., Parker, K.E., 1994. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates confirm early Zea mays in the Mississippi River Valley. American Antiquity 59, 490498.Google Scholar
Rosenmeier, M.F., Hodell, D.A., Brenner, M., Curtis, J.H., Guilderson, T.P., 2002. A 4000-year lacustrine record of environmental change in the southern Maya lowlands, Petén, Guatemala. Quaternary Research 57, 183190.Google Scholar
Ruddiman, W.F., Fuller, D.Q., Kutzbach, J.E., Tzedakis, P.C., Kaplan, J.O., Ellis, E.C., Vavrus, S.J., Roberts, C.N., Fyfe, R., He, F., Lemmen, C., Woodbridge, J., 2016. Late Holocene climate: natural or anthropogenic? Reviews of Geophysics 54, 93118.Google Scholar
Salomons, W., Mook, W.G., 1991. Isotope geochemistry of carbonates in the weathering zone. In: Taylor, H.P. Jr, O’Neil, J.R., Kaplan, I.R. (Eds.), Stable Isotope Geochemistry: A Tribute to Samuel Epstein, 239-269. Geochemical Society Special Publication 3. Geochemical Society, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
Simon, M.L., 2017. Reevaluating the evidence for Middle Woodland maize from the Holding Site. American Antiquity 82, 140150.Google Scholar
Sponheimer, M., Robinson, T., Ayliffe, L., Passey, B., Roeder, B., Shipley, L., Lopez, E., Cerling, T., Dearing, D., Ehleringer, J., 2003. An experimental study of carbon-isotope fractionation between diet, hair, and feces of mammalian herbivores. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81, 871876.Google Scholar
Stinchcomb, G.E., Messner, T.C., Driese, S.G., Nordt, L.C., Stewart, R.M., 2011. Pre-colonial (A.D. 1100–1600) sedimentation related to prehistoric maize agriculture and climate change in eastern North America. Geology 39, 363366.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Reimer, R., 2015. CALIB 7.1 Radiocarbon Calibration 7.1 ed. Accessed: November 27, 2018.Google Scholar
Trimble, S.W., 1999. Decreased rates of alluvial sediment storage in Coon Creek Basin, Wisconsin, 1975–93. Science 285, 12441246.Google Scholar
Tulowiecki, S.J., Larsen, C.P.S., 2015. Native American impact on past forest composition inferred from species distribution models, Chautauqua County, New York. Ecological Monographs 85, 557581.Google Scholar
Uglietti, C., Gabrielli, P., Cooke, C.A., Vallelonga, P., Thompson, L.G., 2015. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112, 23492354.Google Scholar
US EPA, 1990. Superfund record of decision: NL Industries/Taracorp Lead Smelting, IL. Accessed: November 27, 2018.Google Scholar
US EPA, 2014. Superfund site: Chemetco Hartford, IL. Accessed: November 27, 2018.Google Scholar
Vermillion, B., Brugam, R., Retzlaff, W., Bala, I., 2005. The sedimentary record of environmental lead contamination at St. Louis, Missouri (USA) area smelters. Journal of Paleolimnology 33, 189203.Google Scholar
Wang, S., Jin, X., Bu, Q., Zhou, X., Wu, F., 2006. Effects of particle size, organic matter and ionic strength on the phosphate sorption in different trophic lake sediments. Journal of Hazardous Materials 128, 95105.Google Scholar
White, A.J., Stevens, L.R., Lorenzi, V., Munoz, S.E., Lipo, C.P., Schroeder, S., 2018. An evaluation of fecal stanols as indicators of population change at Cahokia, Illinois. Journal of Archaeological Science 93, 129134.Google Scholar
Whitlock, C., Anderson, R.S., 2003. Fire history reconstructions based on sediment records from lakes and wetlands. In: Veblen, T.T., Baker, W.L., Montenegro, G., Swetnam, T.W. (Eds.), Fire and Climatic Change in Temperate Ecosystems of the Western Americas, Vol. 160, 331. Springer, New York, NY.Google Scholar
Widory, D., Petelet-Giraud, E., Negrel, P., LaDouche, B., 2005. Tracking the sources of nitrate in groundwater using coupled nitrogen and boron isotopes: a synthesis. Environmental Science & Technology 39, 539548.Google Scholar
Yerkes, R.W., 2005. Bone chemistry, body parts, and growth marks: evaluating Ohio Hopewell and Cahokia Mississippian seasonality, subsistence, ritual and feasting. American Antiquity 70, 241265.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Pompeani et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S2 and Figures S1-S2

Download Pompeani et al. supplementary material(File)
File 906.8 KB