Sixteen depressed in-patients from a hospital in Athens were assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale and the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. Comparison of admission, discharge and mid-treatment scores showed that:
(1) There was a larger drop in depression score in the first half of treatment.
(2) Hostility scores, except for extrapunitiveness, decreased significantly over time, larger changes occurring in the first half of treatment.
(3) Comparisons with British scores showed that during illness there were no significant differences between British and Greeks, though the latter tended to be more extrapunitive. At recovery, the Greeks were significantly more extrapunitive.
The movement of hostility in depressive illness, the validity of the HDHQ and need for national norms are discussed.