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The Forgotten Child of the Wider Corded Ware Family: Russian Fatyanovo Culture in Context

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 November 2020

Kerkko Nordqvist
Affiliation:
Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki. P.O. Box 4, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Email: kerkko.nordqvist@helsinki.fi
Volker Heyd
Affiliation:
Archaeology, Department of Cultures, University of Helsinki. P.O. Box 59, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Email: volker.heyd@helsinki.fi
Corresponding

Abstract

The Fatyanovo Culture, together with its eastern twin, the Balanovo Culture, forms part of the pan-European Corded Ware Complex. Within that complex, it represents its eastern expansion to the catchment of the Upper and Middle Volga River in the European part of Russia. Its immediate roots are to be found in the southern Baltic States, Belarus, and northern Ukraine (the Baltic and Middle-Dnepr Corded Ware Cultures), from where moving people spread the culture further east along the river valleys of the forested flatlands. By doing so, they introduced animal husbandry to these regions. Fatyanovo Culture is predominately recognised through its material culture imbedded in its mortuary practices. Most aspects of every-day life remain unknown. The lack of an adequate absolute chronological framework has thus far prevented the verification of its internal cultural dynamics while overall interaction proposed also on typo-stratigraphical grounds suggests a contemporaneity with other representations of the Corded Ware Complex in Europe. Fatyanovo Culture is formed by the reverse movement to the (north-)east of the Corded Ware Complex, itself established in the aftermath of the westbound spread of Yamnaya populations from the steppes. It thus represents an important link between west and east, pastoralists and last hunter-gatherers, and the 3rd and the 2nd millennia bc. Through its descendants (including Abashevo, Sintashta, and Andronovo Cultures) it becomes a key component in the development of the wider cultural landscape of Bronze Age Eurasia.

Résumé

RÉSUMÉ

L’enfant oublié de la grande famille élargie des peuples aux vases cordés:culture russe Fatyanovo en contexte, de Kerkko Nordqvist et Volker Heyd

La culture Fatyanovo ainsi que sa soeur jumelle à l’est, la culture Balanovo font partie du complexe pan européen de la poterie cordée. A l’intérieur de ce complexe elle représente son expansion à l’est au captage de la haute et moyenne Volga dans la partie européenne de la Russie. Ses racines immédiates se trouvent dans les du états du sud de la Baltique, la Biélorussie et le nord de l’Ukraine (es cultures de la poterie cordée de la Baltique et du Niepre moyen) d’où des populations en mouvement ont répandu la culture plus loin vers l’est le long des vallées fluviales, des basses terres boisées. Ce faisant, ils ont introduit l’élevage dans ces régions. La culture Fatyanovo est essentiellement identifiée par sa culture matérielle incrustée dans ses pratiques mortuaires. La plus grande partie des aspects de la vie de tous les jours est restée inconnue. ‘L’absence d’un cadre chronologique absolu adéquat a donc jusqu’à présent empêché la vérification de sa dynamique culturelle interne tandis que l’interaction générale proposée aussi p our des raisons typostatigraphiques indique une contemporanéité avec d’autres représentations du complexe de la poterie cordée en Europe. La culture Fatyanovo est formée par le mouvement inverse (vers le nord-est) du complexe de la poterie cordée, lui-mê établi dans la foulée d’une avancée vers l’ouest des populations Yamaya venues des steppes. De ce fait, il constitue un important maillon entre l’ouest et l’est, pasteurs et derniers chasseurs cueilleurs, 3ième et 2ième millénaires av. J.C. A travers ses descendants (y compris les cultures Abashevo, Sintashta, et Andronovo) il devient un élément clé dans le développement du paysage culturel plus étendu de l’Eurasie de l’âge du bronze.

Zusammenfassung

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Das vergessene Kind der weit verzweigten schnurkeramischen Familie: Die russische Fatyanovo-Kultur in ihrem Kontext, von Kerkko Nordqvist und Volker Heyd

Gemeinsam mit ihrem östlichen Zwilling, der Balanovo-Kultur, bildet die Fatyanovo-Kultur einen Teil des gesamteuropäischen Schnurkeramik-Komplexes. Innerhalb dieses Komplexes stellt sie dessen östliche Verbreitung bis zum Einzugsgebiet von oberer und mittlerer Wolga im europäischen Teil Russlands dar. Ihre unmittelbaren Wurzeln liegen in den südlichen baltischen Staaten, Weissrussland und der nördlichen Ukraine (in den Baltischen und Mittel-Dnjepr Schnurkeramik-Kulturen), von wo aus wandernde Gruppen die Kultur entlang der Flusstäler der bewaldeten Ebenen weiter nach Osten verbreiteten. Auf diese Weise führten sie die Tierhaltung in diesen Regionen ein. Die Fatyanovo-Kultur ist vor allem durch ihre materielle Kultur bekannt, die Teil ihrer Bestattungspraktiken ist. Die meisten Aspekte des Alltagslebens bleiben unbekannt. Das Fehlen eines angemessenen absolutchronologischen Rahmens hat bisher die Überprüfung ihrer internen kulturellen Dynamik verhindert, während die unter anderem aus typostratigraphischen Gründen vorgeschlagene Gesamtinteraktion auf eine Gleichzeitigkeit mit anderen Vertretern des Schnurkeramik-Komplexes in Europa hindeutet. Die Fatyanovo-Kultur entsteht durch die entgegengesetzte, (nord-)östliche Bewegung des Schnurkeramik-Komplexes, der sich nach der Ausbreitung der Yamnaya-Populationen aus den Steppen in westlicher Richtung etabliert hatte. Sie stellt also eine wichtige Verbindung dar zwischen Ost und West, zwischen Viehzüchtern und den letzten Jäger-Sammlern und zwischen dem 3. und 2. Jahrtausend bc. Durch ihre Abkömmlinge (einschließlich den Abaschewo-, Sintaschta- und Andronovo-Kulturen) wird sie ein zentraler Bestandteil der weiteren kulturellen Landschaft des bronzezeitlichen Eurasiens.

Resumen

RESUMEN

El niño olvidado de la familia Corded Ware: la cultura rusa de Fatyanovo en su contexto, por Kerkko Nordqvist y Volker Heyd

La Cultura Fatyanovo, junto a su análoga en la zona oriental, la cultura Balanovo, forma parte del complejo pan-europeo de la Cerámica Cordada. Dentro de este complejo, representa su expansión al este alcanzando la parte alta y media de la cuenca del río Volga en la parte europea de Rusia. Su origen inmediato se puede explorar en la zona sur de los Países Bálticos, Bielorrusia y norte de Ucrania (Culturas de la Cerámica Cordada del Báltico y Middle-Dnepr), desde donde una migración démica provocó su expansión al este a lo largo de los valles fluviales de las llanuras boscosas. Esto provocó la expansión de la ganadería en estas regiones. La cultura Fatyanovo se reconoce fundamentalmente a través de la cultura material que acompaña sus prácticas mortuarias. La mayoría de los aspectos relacionados con su vida cotidiana siguen siendo desconocidos. La ausencia de un marco cronológico adecuado ha impedido hasta ahora el establecimiento de su dinámica cultural interna, mientras que las propuestas basadas en bases tipo-estratigráficas sugieren una contemporaneidad con otras manifestaciones cerámicas cordadas en Europa. La cultura Fatyanovo supuso una expansión al noreste de la cerámica cordada que se estableció como consecuencia de la expansión hacia el oeste de las poblaciones Yamnaya de las estepas. Esto representa un importante nexo de unión entre el este y el oeste en el III y II milenio BC, entre pastoralistas y los últimos grupos de cazadores-recolectores. A través de sus descendientes (incluyendo las culturas Abashevo, Sintashta y Andronovo) se convirtió en un componente clave en el desarrollo del paisaje cultural de la Edad del Bronce en Eurasia.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Prehistoric Society

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