Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-n9d2k Total loading time: 0.218 Render date: 2021-10-24T10:37:29.906Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Optimal nutrition: vitamin E

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 February 2007

P. A. Morrissey*
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, University College, Cork, Republic of Ireland
P. J. A. Sheehy
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, University College, Cork, Republic of Ireland
*
*Corresponding author: Professor P. A. Morrissey, fax +353 21 270244, email p.morrissey@ucc.ie
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Interest in the role of vitamin E in disease prevention has encouraged the search for reliable indices of vitamin E status. Most studies in human subjects make use of static markers, usually a-tocopherol concentrations in plasma or serum. Plasma or serum α-tocopherol concentrations of < 11.6, 11.6–16.2, and > 16.2 mmol/l are normally regarded as indicating deficient, low and acceptable vitamin E status respectively, although more recently it has been suggested that the optimal plasma α-tocopherol concentration for protection against cardiovascular disease and cancer is > 30 μmol/l at common plasma lipid concentrations in combination with plasma vitamin C concentrations of > 50 μmol/l and > 0.4 mmol β-carotene/l. Assessment of vitamin E status has also been based on α-tocopherol concentrations in erythrocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, lipoproteins, adipose tissue, buccal mucosal cells and LDL, and on α- tocopherol: γ-tocopherol in serum or plasma. Erythrocyte susceptibility to haemolysis or lipid oxidation, breath hydrocarbon exhalation, oxidative resistance of LDL, and α-tocopheryl quinone concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid have been used as functional markers of vitamin E status. However, many of these tests tend to be non-specific and poorly standardized. The recognition that vitamin E has important roles in platelet, vascular and immune function in addition to its antioxidant properties may lead to the identification of more specific biomarkers of vitamin E status.

Type
‘Optimal nutrition’
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1999

References

Anonymous (1988) New functional tests for vitamin E status in humans. Nutrition Reviews 46, 182184.Google ScholarPubMed
Azzi, A, Boscoboinik, D, Clement, S, Ozer, NK, Ricciarelli, R, Stocker, A, Tasinato, A & Sirikci, O (1997) Signalling functions of α-tocopherol in smooth muscle cells. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 67, 343349.Google ScholarPubMed
Azzi, A, Boscoboinik, D & Hensey, C (1992) The protein kinase C family. European Journal of Biochemistry 208, 547557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, H, Handelman, GJ, Short, S, Machlin, LJ, Bhagavan, HN, Dratz, EA & Frank, O (1986) Comparison of plasma α-and γ-tocopherol levels following chronic oral administration of either all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate or RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate in normal adult male subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 382387.Google ScholarPubMed
Beck, MA (1997) Increased virulence of Coxsackie virus B3 in mice due to vitamin E or selenium deficiency. Journal of Nutrition 127, 966S970S.Google ScholarPubMed
Beharka, A, Redican, S, Leka, L & Meydani, SN (1997) Vitamin E status and immune function. Methods in Enzymology 282, 247263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berr, C, Coudray, C, Bonithon-Kopp, C, Roussel, AM, Mainard, F & Alperovitch, A (1998) Demographic and cardiovascular risk factors in relation to antioxidant status, the EVA study. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 68, 2635.Google ScholarPubMed
Bieri, JG, Poukka Evarts, R & Thorp, S (1977) Factors affecting the exchange of tocopherol between red blood cells and plasma. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 30, 686690.Google ScholarPubMed
Bjørneboe, A, Bjørneboe, G-EA & Drevon, CA (1990) Absorption, transport and distribution of vitamin E. Journal of Nutrition 120, 233242.Google ScholarPubMed
Blumberg, JB (1995) Considerations of the scientific substantiation for antioxidant vitamins and β-carotene in disease prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1521S1526S.Google ScholarPubMed
Cadenas, S, Barja, G, Poulsen, HE & Loft, S (1997) Oxidative DNA damage estimated by oxo8dG in the liver of guinea-pigs supplemented with graded dietary doses of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Carcinogenesis 18, 23732377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Calzada, C, Bruckdorfer, KR & Rice-Evans, CA (1997) The influence of antioxidant nutrients on platelet function in healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 128, 97105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christen, S, Woodall, AA, Shigenaga, MK, Southwell-Keely, PT, Duncan, MW & Ames, BN (1997) γ-Tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(X) and complements α-tocopherol: physiological implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 32173222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clement, M & Bourre, JM (1997) Graded dietary levels of RRR-γ-tocopherol induce a marked increase in the concentrations of α-and γ-tocopherol in nervous tissues, heart, liver and muscle of vitamin-E-deficient rats. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1334, 173181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohn, W (1997) Bioavailability of vitamin E. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, S80S85.Google ScholarPubMed
Cynamon, HA & Isenberg, JN (1987) Characterization of vitamin E status in cholestatic children by conventional laboratory standards and a new functional assay. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 6, 4650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devaraj, S, Adams-Huet, B, Fuller, CJ & Jialal, I (1997) Dose-response comparison of RRR-α-tocopherol and all-racemic-α-tocopherol on LDL oxidation. Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 17, 22732279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devaraj, S, Li, D & Jialal, I (1996) The effects of α-tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function, decreased lipid oxidation, interleukin 1-β secretion, and monocyte adhesion to endothelium. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98, 756763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Waart, FG, Portengen, L, Doekes, G, Verwaal, CJ & Kok, FJ (1997) Effect of 3 months vitamin E supplementation on indices of the cellular and humoral immune response in elderly subjects. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 761774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dieber-Rotheneder, M, Puhl, H, Waeg, G, Striegl, G & Esterbauer, H (1991) Effect of oral supplementation with D-α-tocopherol on the vitamin E content of human low density lipoproteins and resistance to oxidation. Journal of Lipid Research 32, 13251332.Google ScholarPubMed
Dillard, CJ, Dumelin, EE & Tappel, AL (1977) Effect of dietary vitamin E on expiration of pentane and ethane in the rat. Lipids 12, 109114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Downey, JE, Irving, DH & Tappel, AL (1978) Effects of dietary antioxidants on in vivo lipid peroxidation in the rat as measured by pentane production. Lipids 13, 403407.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Esterbauer, H, Puhl, H, Waeg, G, Krebs, A & Dieber-Rotheneder, M (1993) The role of vitamin E in lipoprotein oxidation. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 649671 [Packer, L and Fuchs, J, editors]. New York: Marcel-Dekker.Google Scholar
Farrell, PM, Bieri, JG, Fratantoni, JF, Wood, RE & di Sant'Agnese, PA (1977) The occurrence and effects of vitamin E deficiency: a study in patients with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 6, 233241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farrell, PM, Levine, SL, Murphy, MD & Adams, AJ (1978) Plasma tocopherol levels and tocopherollipid relationships in a normal population of children as compared to healthy adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, 17201726.Google Scholar
Fechner, H, Schlame, M, Guthmann, F, Stevens, PA & Rustow, B (1998) α- and δ-Tocopherol induce expression of hepatic α-tocopherol-transfer-protein in mRNA. Biochemical Journal 331, 577581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freedman, JE, Farhat, JH, Loscalzo, J & Keaney, JF Jr. (1996) α-Tocopherol inhibits aggregation of human platelets by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Circulation 94, 24342440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frei, B & Gaziano, JM (1993) Content of antioxidants, preformed lipid hydroperoxides, and cholesterol as predictors of the susceptibility of human LDL to metal-dependent and -independent oxidation. Journal of Lipid Research 34, 21352145.Google Scholar
Fruebis, J, Bird, DA, Pattison, J & Palinski, W (1997) Extent of antioxidant protection of plasma LDL is not a predictor of the antiatherogenic effect of antioxidants. Journal of Lipid Research 38, 24552464.Google Scholar
Gey, KF (1995 a) Ten-year retrospective on the antioxidant hypothesis of arteriosclerosis: threshold plasma levels of antioxidant micronutrients related to minimum cardiovascular risk. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 6, 206236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gey, KF (1995 b) Cardiovascular disease and vitamins. Concurrent correction of suboptimal plasma antioxidant levels may, as important part of optimal nutrition, help to prevent early stages of cardiovascular disease and cancer, respectively. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta 52, 7591.Google Scholar
Girodon, F, Blache, D, Monget, AL, Lombart, M, Brunet-Lecompte, P, Arnaud, J, Richard, MJ & Galan, P (1997) Effect of a two-year supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and/or minerals in elderly subjects on levels of nutrients and antioxidant defence parameters. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 16, 357365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gokce, N & Frei, B (1996) Basic research in antioxidant inhibition of steps in atherogenesis. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 3, 352357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halevy, D, Thiery, J, Nagel, D, Arnold, S, Erdmann, E, Hofling, B, Cremer, P & Seidel, D (1997) Increased oxidation of LDL in patients with coronary artery disease is independent from dietary vitamins E and C. Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 17, 14321437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handelman, GJ, Machlin, LJ, Fitch, K, Weiter, JJ & Dratz, EA (1985) Oral α-tocopherol supplements decrease plasma γ-tocopherol levels in humans. Journal of Nutrition 115, 807813.Google ScholarPubMed
Hercberg, S, Preziosi, P, Galan, P, Devanlay, M, Keller, H & Bourgeois, C (1994) Vitamin status of a healthy French population: dietary intakes and biochemical markers. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 64, 220232.Google ScholarPubMed
Horwitt, MK (1991) Data supporting supplementation of humans with vitamin E. Journal of Nutrition 121, 424429.Google ScholarPubMed
Jialal, I, Fuller, CJ & Huet, BA (1995) The effect of α-tocopherol supplementation on LDL oxidation. Atheroslerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15, 190198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jialal, I & Grundy, SM (1992) Effect of dietary supplementation with α-tocopherol on the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Journal of Lipid Research 33, 899906.Google ScholarPubMed
Kaempf, DE, Miki, M, Ogihara, T, Okamoto, R, Konishi, K & Mino, M (1994) Assessment of vitamin E nutritional status in neonates, infants and children – on the basis of α-tocopherol levels in blood components and buccal mucosal cells. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 64, 185191.Google ScholarPubMed
Kardinaal, AFM, van't Veer, P, Kok, FJ, Kohlmeier, L, Martin-Moreno, JM, Huttunen, JK, Hallen, M, Aro, A, Delgado-Rodriguez, M, Gómez-Aracena, J, Kark, JD, Martin, BC, Mazaev, VP, Riemersma, RA, Ringstad, J & Strain, JJ (1993) EURAMIC study, antioxidants, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. Design and main hypotheses. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, S64S72.Google ScholarPubMed
Kleinveld, HA, Demacker, PN & Stalenhoef, AF (1994) Comparative study on the effect of low-dose vitamin E and probucol on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and the progression of atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 13861391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohlmeier, L (1995) Future of dietary exposure assessment. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 702S709S.Google ScholarPubMed
Lehmann, J, Rao, DD, Canary, JJ & Judd, JT (1988) Vitamin E and relationships among tocopherols in human plasma, platelets, lymphocytes and red blood cells. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 470474.Google ScholarPubMed
Lemoyne, M, Van Gossum, A, Kurian, R, Ostro, M, Axler, J & Jeejeelbhoy, KN (1987) Breath pentane analysis as an index of lipid peroxidation: a functional test of vitamin E status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 267272.Google ScholarPubMed
Looker, AC, Underwood, BA, Wiley, JA, Fulwood, R & Sempos, CT (1989) Serum α-tocopherol levels of Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans aged 4–74. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 491496.Google ScholarPubMed
Machlin, LJ. (editor) (1984) Vitamin E. In Handbook of Vitamins: Nutritional, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects, pp. 99145. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
Machlin, LJ, Gabriel, E & Brin, M (1982) Biopotency of α-tocopherols as determined by curative myopathy bioassay in the rat. Journal of Nutrition 112, 14371440.Google ScholarPubMed
McMurchie, EJ, Darrie, MM, Beilen, LJ, Croft, KD, Vandongen, R & Armstrong, BK (1984) Dietary induced changes in fatty acid composition of human cheek cell phospholipids: correlation with changes in the dietary polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 975980.Google ScholarPubMed
Meydani, M (1995) Vitamin E. Lancet 345, 170175.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meydani, SN, Meydani, M, Blumberg, JB, Leka, LS, Siber, G, Loszewski, R, Thompson, C, Pedrosa, MC, Diamond, RD & Stollar, BD (1997) Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 277, 13801386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mino, M (1993) Fetomaternal vitamin E status. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 965973 [Packer, L and Fuchs, J, editors]. New York: Marcel-Dekker.Google Scholar
Mino, M, Kitagawa, M & Nakagawa, S (1985) Red blood cell tocopherol concentrations in a normal population of Japanese children and premature infants in relation to the assessment of vitamin E status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 631638.Google Scholar
Miyake, M, Miki, M, Yasuda, H, Ogihara, T & Mino, M (1991) Vitamin E and the peroxidizability of erythrocyte membranes in neonates. Free Radical Research Communications 15, 4050.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neuzil, J, Witting, PK & Stocker, R (1997) α-Tocopheryl hydroquinone is an effective multifunctional inhibitor of radical-initiated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein lipids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 78857890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohrvall, M, Sundlof, G & Vessby, B (1996) Gamma-, but not alpha-, tocopherol levels in serum are reduced in coronary heart disease patients. Journal of Internal Medicine 239, 111117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozer, NK, Boscoboinik, D & Azzi, A (1995) New roles of low density lipoproteins and vitamin E in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 35, 117124.Google ScholarPubMed
Packer, L (1993) Vitamin E, biological activity and health benefits: overview. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 977982 [Packer, L and Fuchs, J, editors]. New York: Marcel-Dekker.Google ScholarPubMed
Pappas, AM (1996) Determinants of antioxidant status in humans. Lipids 31, S37S82.Google Scholar
Prieme, H, Loft, S, Nyyssonen, K, Salonen, JT & Poulsen, HE (1997) No effect of supplementation with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or coenzyme Q10 on oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2>-deoxyguanosine excretion in smokers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 503507.Google ScholarPubMed
Princen, HMG, Van Duyvenvoorde, W, Buytenkek, R, Van Der Laarse, A, van Poppel, G, Gevers, JA & Van Hinsbergh, VWM (1995) Supplementation with low doses of vitamin E protects LDL from lipid peroxidation in men and women. Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15, 325333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qureshi, N & Qureshi, AA (1993) Tocotrienols, novel hypocholesterolemic agents with antioxidant properties. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 247267 [Packer, L and Fuchs, J, editors]. New York: Marcel-Dekker.Google Scholar
Regnstrom, J, Nilsson, J, Moldeus, P, Strom, K, Bavenholm, P, Tornvall, P & Hamsten, A (1996) Inverse relation between the concentration of low-density-lipoprotein vitamin E and severity of coronary artery disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 377385.Google ScholarPubMed
Rexrode, KM & Manson, JE (1996) Antioxidants and coronary heart disease, observational studies. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 3, 363367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, PD & Steiner, M (1993) Adhesion of human platelets inhibited by vitamin E. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 297311 [Packer, L and Fuchs, J, editors]. New York: Marcel-Dekker.Google Scholar
Rock, C, Jacob, RA & Bowen, PE (1996) Update on the biological characteristics of the antioxidant micronutrients, vitamin C, vitamin E, and the carotenoids. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96, 693702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sauberlich, HE, Dowdy, RP & Skala, JH (1974) Laboratory Tests for the Assessment of Nutritional Status, pp. 7480. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Schäfer, L & Overvad, K (1990) Subcutaneous adipose-tissue fatty acids and vitamin E in humans: relation to diet and sampling site. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 486490.Google ScholarPubMed
Serbinova, EA, Tsuchiya, M, Goth, S, Kagan, VE & Packer, L (1993) Antioxidant action of α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol in membrane. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 235243 [Packer, L and Fuchs, J, editors]. New York: Marcel-Dekker.Google Scholar
Sheppard, AJ, Pennington, JAT & Weihrauch, JL (1993) Analysis and distribution of vitamin E in vegetable oils and foods. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 931 [Packer, L and Fuchs, J, editors]. New York: Marcel-Dekker.Google Scholar
Siegel, D, Bolton, EM, Burr, JA, Liebler, DC & Ross, D (1997) The reduction of α-tocopherolquinone by human NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase: the role of α-tocopherylhydroquinone as a cellular antioxidant. Molecular Pharmacology 52, 300305.Google Scholar
Simons, LA, Von Konigsmark, M & Balasubramaniam, S (1996) What dose of vitamin E is required to reduce susceptibility of LDL to oxidation? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 26, 496503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, D, Parthasarathy, S, Carew, TE, Khoo, JC & Witztum, JL (1989) Beyond cholesterol: modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. New England Journal of Medicine 320, 915924.Google ScholarPubMed
Thurnham, DI, Davies, JA, Crump, BJ, Situnayake, AD & Davis, M (1986) The use of different lipids to express serum tocopherol-lipid ratios for the measurement of vitamin E status. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 23, 514520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toghi, H, Abe, T, Nakanishi, M, Hamato, F, Sasaki, K & Takahashi, S (1994) Concentrations of α-tocopherol and its quinone derivative in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vascular dementia of the Binswanger type and Alzheimer type dementia. Neuroscience Letters 174, 7376.Google Scholar
Traber, MG & Kayden, HJ (1987) Tocopherol distribution and intracellular localization in human adipose tissue. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 488495.Google ScholarPubMed
Traber, MG & Sies, H (1996) Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery. Annual Review of Nutrition 16, 321347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Poppel, G, Verhagen, H, van't Veer, P & van Bladeren, PJ (1993) Markers for cytogenetic damage in smokers: associations with plasma antioxidants and glutathione S-transferase mu. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2, 441447.Google ScholarPubMed
Virtanen, SM, van't Veer, P, Kok, F, Kardinaal, AF & Aro, A (1996) Predictors of adipose tissue tocopherol and toenail selenium levels in nine countries: the EURAMIC study. European multicentre case-control study on antioxidants, myocardial infarction, and cancer of the breast. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 599606.Google ScholarPubMed
Wang, W, Kucuk, O, Franke, AA, Liu, LQ, Custer, LJ & Higuchi, CM (1996) Reproducibility of erythrocyte polyamine measurements and correlation with plasma micronutrients in an antioxidant vitamin intervention study. Journal of Cell Biochemistry 62, 1926.3.0.CO;2-4>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Y, Ichiba, M, Oishi, H, Iyadomi, M, Shono, N & Tomokuni, K (1997) Relationship between plasma concentrations of β-carotene and α-tocopherol and life-style factors and levels of DNA adducts in lymphocytes. Nutrition and Cancer 27, 6973.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weber, P, Bendich, A & Machlin, LJ (1997) Vitamin E and human health: rationale for determining recommended intake levels. Nutrition 13, 450460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiser, H & Vecchi, M (1982) Stereoisomers of α-tocopheryl acetate. II Biopotencies of all eight stereoisomers, individually or in mixtures, as determined by rat resorption-gestation tests. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 52, 351370.Google ScholarPubMed
Wen, Y, Killalea, S, McGettigan, S & Feely, J (1996) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant vitamins C and E in hypertensive patients. Irish Journal of Medical Science 165, 210212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, JC, Forster, LA, Tull, SP, Wong, M, Beavan, RJ & Ferns, GA (1997) Dietary vitamin E supplementation inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, but not monocyte adhesiveness, in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 78, 259266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winklhofer-Roob, BM, Van't Hof, MA & Shmerling, DH (1997) Reference values for plasma concentrations of vitamin E and A and carotenoids in a Swiss population from infancy to adulthood, adjusted for seasonal influences. Clinical Chemistry 43, 146153.Google Scholar
Wood, DA, Riemersma, RA, Butler, S, Thomson, AM, Macintyre, C & Elton, RA (1987) Linoleic and eicosapentaenoic acids in adipose tissue and platelets and risk of coronary disease. Lancet i, 177183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, Z, Parviainen, M, Mannisto, S, Pietinen, P, Eskelinen, M, Syrjanen, K & Uusitupa, M (1996) Vitamin E concentration in breast adipose tissue of breast cancer patients (Kuopio, Finland). Cancer Causes and Control 7, 591595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ziouzenkova, O, Winklhofer-Roob, BM, Puhl, H, Roob, JM & Esterbauer, H (1996) Lack of correlation between the α-tocopherol content of plasma and LDL, but high correlations for γ-tocopherol and carotenoids. Journal of Lipid Research 37, 19361946.Google ScholarPubMed
You have Access
49
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Optimal nutrition: vitamin E
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Optimal nutrition: vitamin E
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Optimal nutrition: vitamin E
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *