Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-cnmwb Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-24T03:23:30.788Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Streamlined Assessment to Assist in the Design of Internet-of-Things (IOT) Enabled Products: A Case Study of the Smart Fridge

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 July 2019

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

This paper shows how designers of IoT-enabled products can assess the environmental impacts associated with the user behaviour and the service system around the product. High-quality secondary data and a user-behaviour survey were able to highlight critical aspects of a smart fridge's design. A streamlined LCA looked at just the in-use phase of the product within 4 PSS scenarios. The system included: the effects on the food waste; grocery shopping methods; fridge door openings; and how the users interact with the smart fridge features. The results show that a smart fridge as within a PSS can reduce the impact on the environment (GWP of 21,700 kg CO2-eq within the ‘average PSS scenario’ and GWP of 23,100 kg CO2-eq for the normal fridge with ‘typical scenario’). The product's increased emissions are counteracted by the reduction in GWP due to: reduction in food waste; and shifts from brick-and-mortar grocery shopping to e-commerce. Therefore some of the critical aspects of the product's design that are most influential on the environmental impact of an IoT fridge are: the design of the web-browsing capability; and the use-by date tracking system.

Type
Article
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2019

References

Allais, R. and Gobert, J. (2017), “Environmental assessment of PSS, feedback on 2 years of experimentation”, Matériaux & Techniques, Vol. 105 No. 5-6, p. 504.10.1051/mattech/2018010Google Scholar
Bhakar, V., Agur, A., Digalwar, A.K. and Sangwan, K.S. (2015), “Life cycle assessment of CRT, LCD and LED monitors”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 29, pp. 432437.10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.003Google Scholar
Bonvoisin, J., Lelah, A., Mathieux, F. and Brissaud, D. (2011), “Environmental impact assessment model for wireless sensor networks”, Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in Manufacturing, pp. 124129.Google Scholar
Bonvoisin, J., Lelah, A., Mathieux, F. and Brissaud, D. (2012), “An environmental assessment method for wireless sensor networks”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 33, pp. 145154.10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.04.016Google Scholar
Bonvoisin, J., Lelah, A., Mathieux, F. and Brissaud, D. (2014), “An integrated method for environmental assessment and ecodesign of ICT-based optimization services”, Journal of cleaner production, Vol. 68, pp. 144154.Google Scholar
Brander, M., Sood, A., Wylie, C., Haughton, A. and Lovell, J. (2011), “Technical Paper”, Electricity-specific emission factors for grid electricity, Ecometrica, Emissionfactors. com.Google Scholar
BS Standard ISO 14006: 2011 2011. Environmental Management Systems–Guidelines for Incorporating Eco-design.Google Scholar
Chang, F., Zhou, G. and Lu, Q. (2017), “A mapping network model integrating service to warrant function availability of complex electro-mechanical products”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 61, pp. 667672.10.1016/j.procir.2016.11.165Google Scholar
Clune, S., Crossin, E. and Verghese, K. (2017), “Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 140, pp. 766783.Google Scholar
Commission of the European Communities (2009), PROPOSAL FOR A COMMISSION REGULATION implementing Directive 2005/32/EC with regard to household refrigerating appliances FULL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, Brussels.Google Scholar
Commission of the European Communities (2009), Commission Staff Working Document - Commission Regulation implementing Directive 2005/32/EC with regard to ecodesign requirements for simple set-top boxes, Belgium.Google Scholar
Darby, S.J. (2018), “Smart technology in the home: time for more clarity”, Building Research & Information, Vol. 46 No. 1, pp. 140147.Google Scholar
Elias, E.W.A. (2011), User - Efficient Design : Improving the Energy Efficiency of User Behaviour A Behaviour Design Case Study : The Domestic Refrigerator, PhD Thesis, Bath.Google Scholar
GOV.UK 2017, Government emission conversion factors for greenhouse gas company reporting.Google Scholar
Graham-Rowe, E., Jessop, D.C. and Sparks, P. (2015), “Predicting household food waste reduction using an extended theory of planned behaviour”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 101, pp. 194202.10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.05.020Google Scholar
Hischier, R. and Wäger, P.A. (2015), “The transition from desktop computers to tablets: A model for increasing resource efficiency?”, ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer, Cham, pp. 243256.10.1007/978-3-319-09228-7_14Google Scholar
Lewis, J. (2018), John Lewis Web Site. [Online]. Available: https://www.johnlewis.com/. [Accessed: 15-Apr-2018].Google Scholar
Kjaer, L.L., Pagoropoulos, A., Schmidt, J.H. and McAloone, T.C. (2016), “Challenges when evaluating product/service-systems through life cycle assessment”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 120, pp. 95104.Google Scholar
Kramer, K.J., Moll, H.C., Nonhebel, S. and Wilting, H.C. (1999), “Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption”, Energy Policy, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 203216.10.1016/S0301-4215(99)00014-2Google Scholar
Lee, S., Geum, Y., Lee, H. and Park, Y. (2012), “Dynamic and multidimensional measurement of product-service system (PSS) sustainability: a triple bottom line (TBL)-based system dynamics approach”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 32, pp. 173182.Google Scholar
Lesschen, J.P., Van den Berg, M., Westhoek, H.J., Witzke, H.P. and Oenema, O. (2011), “Greenhouse gas emission profiles of European livestock sectors”, Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 166, pp. 1628.10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.058Google Scholar
Louis, J.N., Calo, A., Leiviskä, K. and Pongrácz, E. (2015), “Environmental impacts and benefits of smart home automation: life cycle assessment of home energy management system”, IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 880885.Google Scholar
Malmodin, J., Lundén, D., Moberg, Å, Andersson, G. and Nilsson, M. (2014), “Life cycle assessment of ICT: Carbon footprint and operational electricity use from the operator, national, and subscriber perspective in Sweden”, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 18 No. 6, pp. 829845.Google Scholar
Malmodin, J., Lundén, D., Nilsson, M. and Andersson, G. (2012, September), “LCA of data transmission and IP core networks”, Electronics Goes Green 2012+(EGG), IEEE, pp. 16.Google Scholar
Malmodin, J., Moberg, Å, Lundén, D., Finnveden, G. and Lövehagen, N. (2010), “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors”, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 14 No. 5, pp. 770790.Google Scholar
Matthews, H., Hendrickson, C. and Soh, D. (2001), “Environmental and economic effects of e-commerce: A case study of book publishing and retail logistics”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board No. 1763, pp. 612.Google Scholar
Mishra, D., Gunasekaran, A., Childe, S.J., Papadopoulos, T., Dubey, R. and Wamba, S. (2016), “Vision, applications and future challenges of Internet of Things: A bibliometric study of the recent literature”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 116 No. 7, pp. 13311355.10.1108/IMDS-11-2015-0478Google Scholar
Monfared, B., Furberg, R. and Palm, B. (2014), “Magnetic vs. vapor-compression household refrigerators: a preliminary comparative life cycle assessment”, International journal of refrigeration, Vol. 42, pp. 6976.Google Scholar
Notarnicola, B., Tassielli, G., Renzulli, P.A., Castellani, V. and Sala, S. (2017), “Environmental impacts of food consumption in Europe”, Journal of cleaner production, Vol. 140, pp. 753765.Google Scholar
Ocado (2018), Ocado Corporate Responsibility Report 2018, Hatfield.Google Scholar
Pålsson, H., Pettersson, F. and Hiselius, L.W. (2017), “Energy consumption in e-commerce versus conventional trade channels-Insights into packaging, the last mile, unsold products and product returns”, Journal of cleaner production, Vol. 164, pp. 765778.Google Scholar
Quested, T.E., Marsh, E., Stunell, D. and Parry, A.D. (2013), “Spaghetti soup: The complex world of food waste behaviours. Resources”, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 79, pp. 4351.Google Scholar
Samsung. Family HubTM Fridge Freezer, 380L, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.samsung.com/uk/support/model/RB38M7998S4/EU/. [Accessed: 28-Mar-2018].Google Scholar
Schafer, S. (2015), Carbon Footprint of Dell OptiPlex 3030.Google Scholar
Shehabi, A., Walker, B. and Masanet, E. (2014), “The energy and greenhouse-gas implications of internet video streaming in the United States”, Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 9 No. 5, p. 054007.Google Scholar
Socolof, M.L., Overly, J.G. and Geibig, J.R. (2005), “Environmental life-cycle impacts of CRT and LCD desktop computer displays”, Journal of Cleaner production, Vol. 13 No. 13-14, pp. 12811294.Google Scholar
Stancu, V., Haugaard, P. and Lähteenmäki, L. (2016), “Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste”, Appetite, Vol. 96, pp. 717.10.1016/j.appet.2015.08.025Google Scholar
Statista (2017), Internet of Things (IoT) connected devices installed base worldwide from 2015 to 2025 (in billions). [Online]. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/471264/iot-number-of-connected-devices-worldwide/ (Accessed: 21-Nov-2017).Google Scholar
Statista (2018), Household waste in England (UK).Google Scholar
The Japan Electrical Manufactures’ Association (2014), Report on Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Analyses of Refrigerators.Google Scholar
van Loon, P., Deketele, L., Dewaele, J., McKinnon, A. and Rutherford, C. (2015), “A comparative analysis of carbon emissions from online retailing of fast moving consumer goods”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 106, pp. 478486.Google Scholar
Veeramani, A., Dias, G.M. and Kirkpatrick, S.I. (2017), “Carbon footprint of dietary patterns in Ontario, Canada: A case study based on actual food consumption”, Journal of cleaner production, Vol. 162, pp. 13981406.Google Scholar
Waters, L., Goodright, V. and WilNes, E. (2015), Energy Consumption in the UK (2015), Department of Energy and Climate Change.Google Scholar
Weber, C.L., Hendrickson, C.T., Matthews, H.S., Nagengast, A., Nealer, R. and Jaramillo, P. (2009, May), “Life cycle comparison of traditional retail and e-commerce logistics for electronic products: A case study of buy.com”, Sustainable Systems and Technology, 2009. ISSST'09. IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, pp. 16.Google Scholar
Weideli, D. and Cheikhrouhou, N. (2013), Environmental Analysis of US Online Shopping, Doctoral dissertation, Master Thesis for MIT Center for Transportation & Logistics, Cambridge MA, USA.Google Scholar
Winkler, T., Schopf, K., Aschemann, R. and Winiwarter, W. (2016), “From farm to fork–A life cycle assessment of fresh Austrian pork”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 116, pp. 8089.Google Scholar
Wrap (2015), Reducing the amount of food and drink that gets wasted in the home. Available at: http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/Consumer_Food_Waste_Prevention_narrative_0.pdf.Google Scholar
Xiao, R., Zhang, Y., Liu, X. and Yuan, Z. (2015), “A life-cycle assessment of household refrigerators in China”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 95, pp. 301310.Google Scholar