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The model of PGE describes the emergence of new systems based on reference by the activities carryover, embodiment and principle variation - qualitatively different manifestations of a transfer process. We investigate indicators which constitute these different manifestations measurably for different types of systems. We propose generalized variation operators to describe system development with respect to different product elements and system types. We use case studies from automotive, production systems and simulation models.
Platform design has been firmly established in the automotive industry as a strategy to provide wider product variety while maintaining cost effective production. But this strategy can struggle to keep up with the pace and nature of emerging technologies. This paper reviews the existing approaches to modelling product platforms, and showcases the challenges at OEMs introducing new technological innovations in their platforms. A gap is identified in the methods to assess the ability of existing platforms to integrate new technologies whenever they become available.
Systems engineering (SE) is a general methodological approach that includes all relevant activities to design, develop and verify a system. This work was based on the need to enhance the integration of the customer needs into the design phases of SE. A joint methodology was proposed integrating the SE approach with the Design Thinking (DT). An analysis was conducted as part of a case study proposed by IBM Corporation for the development of a security system for a building. The results confirm that the insertion of the DT in the SE has a significant impact on the generation of concept solutions.
There are various strategies to control complexity and variety growth in ETO businesses. Such portfolio rationalization initiatives sometimes stall. This paper elaborates on the challenges that cause this. Challenges described in literature and challenges seen in five different industry cases are consolidated. The challenges are combined into groups and presented in the ADKAR change management model. The authors intend this list to be used for guidance In industry and expect the collection to be extended with future industry cases and challenges.
Presented is an approach to support margin allocation and management via a graph-theoretical network of assumptions. In contrast to the document-centric approach, the network captures assumptions dependencies, and enables an algorithmic process supporting margin allocation and management. Ultimately, this methodology is intended to assist decision-makers in managing assumptions and examining their impact on an architecture. Explicitly linking margins to assumptions allows to support mitigating their risk of invalidity. The approach is demonstrated with a conceptual aircraft design example.
As the complexity of the systems increases, so does the complexity of designing a suitable engineering IT architecture. Challenges reach from the definition of required and consistent functionalities and interfaces to the evaluation, which combination of IT tools fulfils the required functionality, usability and interoperability in the best way. Thus, we provide a procedure, methodology and modelling support for the definition of functional and logical engineering IT architectures and their holistic evaluation. The approach is part of an overall procedure and demonstrated in an example.
Interactive computer-supported information visualisations are being increasingly used in design. However, while there are frameworks that discuss how traditional representations, such as sketches, CAD models and static diagrams support design tasks, no such mapping exists for interactive visualisations of product-related information. As novel contributions, this paper reviews the design literature for the use of information visualisations. Moreover, using systems theory and Gestalt principles, insights on the applicability of such information visualisations for various design tasks are given.
Modular product structuring has been proven an effective way to satisfy a high sales variety with low internal product and process complexity but is usually carried out on existing structures. To support the modular new product development, this contribution shows the initial structuring of integrated product and assembly structures based on a variance-oriented product structure. With help of a perspective-based modularization approach, consolidating the product life phases of procurement, assembly and sales, modular product and process structures are developed within an industry case study.
A new design methodology for long life and large size (Ll-Ls) products called Design for Installation (DfI) is proposed. Ll-Ls products are usually made up of large parts that need to be assembled on field. The proposed methodology, based on adapted Design Structure Matrix (DSM) and Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) methods, enables to optimize the design of a Ll-Ls product in order to reduce time and cost of the installation process. The new methodology works with a conceptual design of the product and the weight and size restrictions given by logistic factors as inputs.
Alternative ways to divide the product into modules, partitioning types, have been identified. The research material consists of the modularisation exercise at the university. Students modularised LEGO wheel loaders for product configuration. We began to see certain basic principles for partitioning the product into modules. From these, we compiled a collection of partitioning types. Similarities between the identified partitioning types and the literature exists. Future research is concerned with whether identified partitioning types would also support modularisation in industrial projects.
Increased system robustness is one of the promises of modularity. However, research on the topic has provided conflicting findings. By generating more than 2000 system architectures, this paper shows that the relation between modularity and robustness is multifaceted: Modularity decreases topological robustness, increases robustness to change propagation, and provides economic benefits. Results here confirm the importance of modularity, enable reconciliation of opposing findings from prior research, and guides researchers and practitioners in the selection of appropriate robustness measures.
Design principles from the field of design engineering require that a product be designed as unambiguous, safe and simple as possible. Simplicity results on the one hand from an objective product-relevant side, on the other hand from the experience and knowledge of the user. A product that is perceived as simple by one person may seem complicated to another. From this, the questions arise, with which attributes simplicity can be described and how these are to be captured. In this paper, an evaluation system for the subjective attributes of simplicity is created using the fuzzy sets approach.
For an efficient product family development an abstraction of concrete product variants is necessary in order to recognize and systematically describe characteristic properties of a variant. System architecture models represent a possibility for the systematic description of the product variety. The structure of architecture models for existing product families resembles a reverse engineering process, in which products have to be analyzed on their structures. This paper describes a reverse engineering approach for building up system architecture models as basis for developing product families.
This paper presents an algorithm that contributes to an automatic decomposition of a mechanical part based on geometric features and methods of unsupervised machine learning. For the development of the algorithm, existing techniques of 3D shape segmentation, especially surface-based part segmentation procedures are reviewed and important areas of activities are revealed. The developed multi-step approach results in an abstract product model. This representation leads to a new way of designing and redesigning parts for the novel hybrid manufacturing concept Incremental Manufacturing (IM).
Whilst Concurrent Conceptual Design (CCD) has been performed for many years at facilities such as: the Concurrent Design Facility at ESA and the Project Design Center at JPL-NASA, the sequencing know-how resides in their communities of practice. This paper strives to explain how a sequencing algorithm based on Design Structure Matrices can be used as an instrument to facilitate the interaction between disciplines during CCD studies for Model-Based systems exemplified with two case studies.
As model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is evolving, the need for evaluating MBSE approaches grows. Literature shows that there is an untested assertion in the MBSE community that complexity drives the adoption of MBSE. To assess this assertion and support the evaluation of MBSE, a principal component analysis was carried out on eight product and development characteristics using data collected in an MBSE course, resulting in organizational complexity, product complexity and inertia. To conclude, the method developed in this paper enables organisations to evaluate their MBSE adoption potential.
In order to meet an increasing internal variety, a solution can be the modularization of products. To motivate modularization projects throughout all phases of life, different effects of modular product families were collected in previous works on a literature basis. In this paper, a validation concept is presented, which will investigate these effects by using statements directly from industry representatives. In particular, the industry background is included in the evaluation to generate a more differentiated overall picture of impacts of modular product families.
With an increasing demand for product individualisation leading to increased product architecture complexity and -costs, modular kits are one common measure to cope with this issue. The management of such a modular kit as well as the methodical determination of a specific product variant is key to the manufacturer's success. As multiple influence factors need to be taken into account when configuring product variants, we propose a multi-dimensional geometric optimisation algorithm, allowing for prioritising varying customer demands and thereby determining the ideally balanced product variant.
Novel products are commonly realized by integrating heterogeneous technologies. Product architecting focus on defining the scheme by which the product functions are allocated to physical components. A DSM-based clustering method that integrates technical complexity and strategic concerns has previously been proposed. It has been shown that interaction weights in the DSM may affect the clustering result. A complexity-based interaction strength model to be used in DSM clustering is proposed here. The case study gives promising results from both interaction performance and safety points of view.
The development of a new motor can be a high effort. In this paper, Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is applied to model the second generation of an electronic compact actuator (ECA). This paper focuses on the traceability between model elements from previous product generations. By integrating the approach of the PGE - Product Generation Engineering in MBSE, developers can store more relevant information in the model; they can accomplish automatic calculations of derived factors and build models more efficiently in further product developments.