Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-sh8wx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-21T04:40:27.577Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Product-service systems in large automotive OEMs: characterising the decision-making process when developing and introducing vehicle sharing/pooling schemes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 May 2024

Lucia C. Burtnik Urueta*
University of Bath, United Kingdom
Elies Dekoninck
University of Bath, United Kingdom


Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Automotive OEM introduced Product-Service Systems in the past 20 years, challenging their traditional business model. A qualitative study was developed to characterise the decision-making process across 6 case studies, and similar patterns across different enabled the identification of lessons learned and possible future implications. All PSS initiatives were introduced following an Agile/Lean experimental approach, but the opportunistic nature of trials casts doubts in future validity. New testing methods that generate more robust conclusions need to be developed.

Design for Sustainability
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
The Author(s), 2024.


Bertoni, M. (2019) 'Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Sustainability and Value Assessment in Early PSS Design', Sustainability, 11(7), 1952, available: .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunsson, N. (1982) 'THE IRRATIONALITY OF ACTION AND ACTION RATIONALITY: DECISIONS, IDEOLOGIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIONS', Journal of management studies, 19(1), 29-44, available: Scholar
Urueta, Burtnik, C, L.. (2023) ‘PSS in the Automotive sector: Dataset and case study narratives’. Zenodo. Scholar
Ceschin, F. and Vezzoli, C. (2010) 'The role of public policy in stimulating radical environmental impact reduction in the automotive sector: the need to focus on product-service system innovation', International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 10(2/3), 321, available: Scholar
Citroen, C.L. (2011) 'The role of information in strategic decision-making', International Journal of Information Management, 31(6), 493-501, available: Scholar
Dremel, C.; Herterich, M.; Wulf, J.; Waizmann, J.; and Brenner, W. (2017) 'How AUDI AG Established Big Data Analytics in Its Digital Transformation', MIS Quarterly Executive, 16(2), 81-101.Google Scholar
Enström, E. and Frendin, O. (2023) Sustainability within the Swedish automotive industry, unpublished thesis (Master), University of Gothenburg, available: [accessed 16/08/2023].Google Scholar
Firnkorn, J. and Müller, M. (2012) 'Selling Mobility instead of Cars: New Business Strategies of Automakers and the Impact on Private Vehicle Holding', Business Strategy & the Environment (John Wiley & Sons, Inc), 21(4), 264-281, available: Scholar
Gaiardelli, P., Songini, L. and Saccani, N. (2014) 'The Automotive Industry: Heading Towards Servitization in Turbulent Times' in Lay, G., ed., Servitization in Industry, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 55-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Genzlinger, F., Zejnilovic, L. and Bustinza, O.F. (2020) 'Servitization in the automotive industry: How car manufacturers become mobility service providers', Strategic Change, 29(2), 215-226, available: Scholar
Harrison, A. (2017) 'Design for Service', Research-Technology Management, 60(4), 19-25, available: Scholar
Kolar, K., Ahmad, F., Chan, L. and Erickson, P.G. (2015) 'Timeline Mapping in Qualitative Interviews: A Study of Resilience with Marginalized Groups', International journal of qualitative methods, 14(3), 13-32, available: Scholar
Kurpiela, S. and Teuteberg, F. (2022). "Strategic planning of product-service systems: A systematic literature review." Journal of Cleaner Production 338: 130528, Scholar
Levinthal, D.A. (2012) 'From the Ivy Tower to the C-suite: Garbage Can Processes and Corporate Strategic Decision Making' in The Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice: Looking Forward at Forty Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 349-362, available: Scholar
Mahl, T., et al. . (2023). "Adapting a dashboard-based approach for feasibility analysis to circular PSS business models" Proceedings of the Design Society 3: 465-474, Scholar
Mahut, F., Daaboul, J., Bricogne, M. and Eynard, B. (2017) 'Product-Service Systems for servitization of the automotive industry: a literature review', International journal of production research, 55(7), 2102-2120, available: .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
March, J. (2002) 'Understanding how decisions happen in organisations' in Shapira, Z., ed., Organizational decision making, Cambridge: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
March, J.G. (1994) A primer on decision making: how decisions happen, New York, Oxford: New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Merriam, S.B. and Tisdell, E.J. (2015) Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, ProQuest Ebook Central: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.Google Scholar
Mocker, M. and Fonstad, N.O. (2017) 'How AUDI AG is Driving Toward the Sharing Economy', MIS Quarterly Executive, 16(4), 279293.Google Scholar
Mont, O.K. (2002) 'Clarifying the concept of product–service system', Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(3), 237-245, available: Scholar
Neramballi, A., et al. . (2020). "A design navigator to guide the transition towards environmentally benign product/service systems based on LCA results." Journal of Cleaner Production 277: 124074.Google Scholar
Sarancic, D., Pigosso, D, and McAloone, T. (2022). "Designing Industrial Product-Service System (PSS) Pilot Projects in Manufacturing Companies: A Proposed Process for Product and Customer Selection." Proceedings of the Design Society 2: 1119-1128. Scholar
Schilling, M.A. (2013) Strategic management of technological innovation, 4th ed., New York: New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.Google Scholar
Smania, G.S., Arakaki, I.R.Y., Oliveira, A.F., Cauchick-Miguel, P.A. and Mendes, G.H.d.S. (2023) 'Car subscription services: Automakers' shift towards servitized and sustainable business models', Sustainable Production and Consumption, 36, 184-193, available: .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith-Gillespie, A., Muñoz, A., Morwood, D. and Aries, T. (2018) ROLLS-ROYCE: A Circular Economy Business Model Case, Minerva, Repositorio Institucional da USC: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Departamento de Economía Aplicada, available: [accessed 17/07/23].Google Scholar
Wall, J., Bertoni, M. and Larsson, T. (2020) 'The Model-Driven Decision Arena: Augmented Decision-Making for Product-Service Systems Design', Systems, 8(2), 22, available: Scholar
Williams, A. (2006) 'System innovation in the automotive industry: achieving sustainability through micro-factory retailing' in Nieuwenhuis, P., ed., The Business of Sustainable Mobility: From Vision to Reality, Web ed., London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
Williams, A. (2007) 'Product service systems in the automobile industry: contribution to system innovation?', Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(11), 1093-1103, available: .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zapata, C. and Nieuwenhuis, P. (2010) 'Exploring innovation in the automotive industry: new technologies for cleaner cars', Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(1), 14-20, available: .CrossRefGoogle Scholar