Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-2bkkj Total loading time: 0.322 Render date: 2022-09-24T20:13:23.352Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Integration of Energy Analytics and Smart Energy Microgrid into Mobile Medicine Operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 November 2014

Peter W. McCahill*
Affiliation:
Carolinas Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Charlotte, North CarolinaUSA
Erin E. Noste
Affiliation:
Carolinas Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Charlotte, North CarolinaUSA
AJ Rossman
Affiliation:
Sun, Earth, Wind, Water (SEWW) Energy, Inc., Charlotte, North CarolinaUSA
David W. Callaway
Affiliation:
Carolinas Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Charlotte, North CarolinaUSA
*
Correspondence: Peter W. McCahill, MD Carolinas Medical Center Department of Emergency Medicine 1000 Blythe Blvd. Charlotte, North Carolina 28203 USA E-mail pmccahill@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction

Disasters create major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in microgrid technology offer the potential to improve “off-grid” mobile disaster medical response capabilities beyond traditional diesel generation. The Carolinas Medical Center's mobile emergency medical unit (MED-1) Green Project (M1G) is a multi-phase project designed to demonstrate the benefits of integrating distributive generation (DG), high-efficiency batteries, and “smart” energy utilization in support of major out-of-hospital medical response operations.

Methods

Carolinas MED-1 is a mobile medical facility composed of a fleet of vehicles and trailers that provides comprehensive medical care capacities to support disaster response and special-event operations. The M1G project partnered with local energy companies to deploy energy analytics and an energy microgrid in support of mobile clinical operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Charlotte, North Carolina (USA). Energy use data recorded throughout the DNC were analyzed to create energy utilization models that integrate advanced battery technology, solar photovoltaic (PV), and energy conservation measures (ECM) to improve future disaster response operations.

Results

The generators that supply power for MED-1 have a minimum loading ratio (MLR) of 30 kVA. This means that loads below 30 kW lead to diesel fuel consumption at the same rate as a 30 kW load. Data gathered from the two DNC training and support deployments showed the maximum load of MED-1 to be around 20 kW. This discrepancy in MLR versus actual load leads to significant energy waste. The lack of an energy storage system reduces generator efficiency and limits integration of alternative energy generation strategies. A storage system would also allow for alternative generation sources, such as PV, to be incorporated. Modeling with a 450 kWh battery bank and 13.5 kW PV array showed a 2-fold increase in potential deployment times using the same amount of fuel versus the current conventional system.

Conclusions

The M1G Project demonstrated that the incorporation of a microgrid energy management system and a modern battery system maximize the MED-1 generators’ output. Using a 450 kWh battery bank and 13.5 kW PV array, deployment operations time could be more than doubled before refueling. This marks a dramatic increase in patient care capabilities and has significant public health implications. The results highlight the value of smart-microgrid technology in developing energy independent mobile medical capabilities and expanding cost-effective, high-quality medical response.

McCahillPW, NosteEE, RossmanAJ, CallawayDW. Integration of Energy Analytics and Smart Energy Microgrid into Mobile Medicine Operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(6):1-8.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. Neuman, S. Superstorm Shines A Light On Power Grid Vulnerabilities. NPR, the two-way Web site. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/10/30/163970272/superstorm-shines-a-light-on-power-grid-vulnerabilities. Published October 30, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2014.Google Scholar
2. Domm, P. Why East Coast Gas Shortages May Not End for a Week. CNBC Web site. http://www.cnbc.com/id/49642174. Published November 1, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2014.Google Scholar
3. Blackwell, T, Bosse, M. Use of an innovative design mobile hospital in the medical response to Hurricane Katrina. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49(5):580-588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. Bernal-Agustín, JL, Dufo-López, R. Simulation and optimization of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2009;13(8):2111-2118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Anderson, GB, Bell, ML. Lights out: impact of the August 2003 power outage on mortality in New York, NY. Epidemiology. 2012;23(2):189-193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Lin, S, Fletcher, BA, Luo, M, Chinery, R, Hwang, SA. Health impact in New York City during the Northeastern blackout of 2003. Public Health Rep. 2011;126(3):384-393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Powell, T, Hanfling, D, Gostin, L. Emergency preparedness and public health: the lessons of Hurricane Sandy. JAMA. 2012;308(24):2569-2570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Redlener, I, Reilly, MJ. Lessons from Sandy – preparing health systems for future disasters. NEJM. 2012;376(24):2269-2271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Wood, D. As Sandy's Fuel Crisis Eases, FEMA Gassing Up Only Emergency Vehicles. Huffington Post Web site. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/05/sandy-fuel-shortage-fema-gasoline_n_2079218.html. Published November 5, 2012. Accessed April 22, 2014.Google Scholar
10. Mathias, JM. Surgery by flashlight as Joplin team operates through tornado. OR Manager. 2011;27(7):6-7.Google ScholarPubMed
11. Young, W. History of Applying Photovoltaics to Disaster Relief. Florida Solar Energy Center/University of Central Florida. http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/pdf/FSEC-CR-934-96.pdf. Published September 1996. Accessed April 22, 2014.Google Scholar
12. Young W. Photovoltaic Applications for Disaster Relief. Solar Energy Center/University of Central Florida. http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/pdf/fsec-cr-849-95.pdf. Published November 1995. Accessed April 22, 2014.Google Scholar
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Integration of Energy Analytics and Smart Energy Microgrid into Mobile Medicine Operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Integration of Energy Analytics and Smart Energy Microgrid into Mobile Medicine Operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Integration of Energy Analytics and Smart Energy Microgrid into Mobile Medicine Operations for the 2012 Democratic National Convention
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *