Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-n9lxd Total loading time: 0.413 Render date: 2022-10-01T19:56:51.186Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Governing the antipodes: international cooperation in Antarctica and the Arctic

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 October 2015

Oran R. Young*
Affiliation:
Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California (Santa Barbara), Santa Barbara, CA 93106–5131, USA (oran.young@gmail.com)

Abstract

The Arctic and the Antarctic appear to be polar opposites with regard to many matters, including the systems of governance that have evolved in the two regions. Antarctica is demilitarised, closed to economic development, open to a wide range of scientific activities, and subject to strict environmental regulations under the terms of the legally binding Antarctic Treaty of 1959 along with several supplementary measures that together form the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). The Arctic, by contrast, is a theatre of military operations, a site of largescale industrial activities, a homeland for sizable groups of indigenous peoples, and a focus of growing concern regarding the environmental impacts of human activities. The Arctic Council, the principal international body concerned with governance at the regional level, operates under the terms of a ministerial declaration that is not legally binding; it lacks the authority to make formal decisions about matters of current interest. Digging a little deeper, however, one turns up some illuminating similarities between the governance systems operating in the antipodes. In this article, I pursue this line of thinking, setting forth a range of observations relating to (i) the history of governance in the antipodes, (ii) institutional innovations occurring in these regions, (iii) issues of membership, (iv) jurisdictional concerns, (v) the role of science, (vi) relations with the UN system, (vii) institutional interplay, and (viii) the adaptiveness of governance systems in the face of changing circumstances. The governance systems for the polar regions are not likely to converge anytime soon. Nevertheless, this analysis should be of interest not only to those concerned with the fate of Antarctica and the Arctic but also to those seeking to find effective means of addressing needs for governance in other settings calling for governance without government.

Type
Discussion
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Further reading

Berkman, P.A., Lang, M.A., Walton, D.W.H., and Young, O.R. (editors). 2011. Science diplomacy: Antarctica, science, and the governance of international spaces. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.Google Scholar
English, J. 2013. Ice and water: politics, people, and the Arctic Council. Toronto: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Rosenau, J.N. and Czempiel, E.-O. (editors). 1992. Governance without government: order and change in world politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, O.R. and Osherenko, G. (editors). 1993. Polar politics: creating international environmental regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Young, O.R. 2010 Institutional dynamics: emergent patterns in international environmental governance. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Young, O.R. 2012. Building an international regime complex for the Arctic: current status and next steps. The Polar Journal 2: 391407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Governing the antipodes: international cooperation in Antarctica and the Arctic
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Governing the antipodes: international cooperation in Antarctica and the Arctic
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Governing the antipodes: international cooperation in Antarctica and the Arctic
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *