Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-gvrqt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-04T03:21:44.127Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Exploring the genetic diversity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa populations in India

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 July 2023

Kanupriya Chaturvedi*
Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru, 560089, Karnataka, India
Uday Kumara
Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru, 560089, Karnataka, India
Anuradha Sane
Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru, 560089, Karnataka, India
Pritee Singh
Division of Basic Sciences, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru, 560089, Karnataka, India
Prakash Kumar
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India
Prakash Chandra Tripathi
Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru, 560089, Karnataka, India
Corresponding author: Kanupriya Chaturvedi, Email:;


Bael is an important sub-tropical fruit crop in family Rutaceae that is widely distributed throughout South-East Asia. For local communities, the nutritious composition of its fruits and leaves offers tremendous economic and social possibilities to exploit. However, its underutilized status, as well as man-made threats to its natural habitat, make it imperative to implement concrete strategies for its cultivation and conservation. To fully grasp the ability of this adaptable fruit tree for human health and environmental well-being, it is necessary to characterize the genetic diversity. The goal of this study was to use morphological (13 quantitative traits), biochemical (9 attributes) and molecular (10 SRAP primers) characterization to evaluate 24 bael genotypes from two agroecological zones of India. Fruit and pulp weight ranged from 79.0– to 1478.8 g and 15.0– to 894.3 g with mean values of 448.67 and 233.3 g, respectively. Traits such as fruit, pulp, and seed weight (g), fruit length (cm) and width (cm), number of fruits per tree, number of seeds per fruit, shell weight (g) and shell thickness (mm) recorded highly significant differences. High phenol (11.65–24.38 mg GAE/g fw) and flavonoid (12.32–74.63 mg CE/g fw) content was observed in fruit pulp indicating significant antioxidant potential of this fruit. Several morphological and biochemical characters were found to have significant positive correlations. Principal component analysis revealed that first five components contributed 96.76% to total variation. Hierarchical cluster analysis separated the populations into two distinct clusters, while analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using SRAP markers revealed that 70% of the total marker variation was due to interpopulation variance, while 30% was attributed to intrapopulation.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Agarwal, VS (1997) Rural economics of medicinal plants: vegetation in the forests. Drug Plants of India 1, 16.Google Scholar
Amulya, RN, Adivappar, N, Shivakumar, BS and Satish, KM (2022) Studies on genetic variability and relationship of bael (Aegle marmelos (L) Correa) using morphological and molecular markers. Journal of Horticultural Sciences 17, 8894.Google Scholar
AOAC (2006) Official Methods of Analysis. Washington, DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
Benzie, IF and Strain, JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry 239, 7076.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhar, K, Mondal, S and Suresh, P (2019) An eye-catching review of Aegle marmelos L (golden apple). Pharmacognosy Journal 11, 207224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Budak, HRC, Shearman, I, Parmaksiz, RE, Gaussoin, TP and Riosdan, D (2004) Molecular characterization of Buffalograss germplasm using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 108, 328334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charoensiddhi, S and Anprung, P (2008) Bioactive compounds and volatile compounds of Thai bael fruit (Aegle Marmelos Correa) as a valuable source for functional food ingredients. International Food Research Journal 15, 102115.Google Scholar
Chun, OK, Kim, DO, Moon, HY, Kang, HG and Lee, CY (2003) Contribution of individual polyphenolics to total antioxidant capacity of plums. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 72407245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dhakar, MK, Das, B, Nath, V, Sarkar, PK and Singh, AK (2019) Genotypic diversity for fruit characteristics in bael [Aegle marmelos Corr] based on principal component analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 66, 951964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inocent, G, Ejoh, RA, Issa, TS, Schweigert, FJ and Tchouanguep, MF (2007) Carotenoids content of some locally consumed fruits and yams in Cameroon. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6, 497–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaur, A and Kalia, M (2017) Physico-chemical analysis of bael (Aegle marmelos) fruit pulp seed and pericarp. Chemical Science Review Letters 6, 12131218.Google Scholar
Li, G and Quiros, C (2001) Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) a new marker system based on a simple PCR reaction: its application to mapping and gene tagging in Brassica. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 103, 455461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lichtenthaler, HK and Buschmann, C (2001) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: measurement and characterization by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry 1, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Longya, A, Talumphai, S and Jantasuriyarat, C (2020) Morphological characterization and genetic diversity of rice blast fungus, Pyricularia oryzae, from Thailand using ISSR and SRAP markers. Journal of Fungi 6, 38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mujeeb, F, Bajpai, P, Pathak, N and Verma, SR (2017) Genetic diversity analysis of medicinally important horticultural crop Aegle marmelos by ISSR Markers. In Domingues L (ed), PCR: methods and protocol, Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol 1620). New York: Springer, Humana Press, pp. 195211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nayak, D, Singh, DR, Sabarinathan, P, Singh, S and Nayak, T (2013) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers reveal genetic diversity in bael (Aegle marmelos Correa) genotypes of Andaman Islands India. African Journal of Biotechnology 12, 60556060.Google Scholar
Neeraj, P, Bisht, V and Johar, V (2017) Bael (Aegle marmelos) extraordinary species of India: a review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6, 18701887.Google Scholar
Panda, SK, Sahu, UC, Behera, SK and Ray, RC (2013) Bio-processing of bael (Aegle marmelos) fruits into wine with antioxidants. Food Bioscience 5, 3441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandey, D, Tandon, DK, Hudedamani, U and Tripathi, M (2013) Variability in bael (Aegle marmelos Corr) genotypes from eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal Horticulture 70, 170178.Google Scholar
Peakall, R and Smouse, PE (2012) GenAlEx 6 5: genetic analysis in Excel Population genetic software for teaching and research – an update. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 28, 25372539.Google ScholarPubMed
R Core Team (2021) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at Scholar
Recuenco, MC, Lacsamana, MS, Hurtada, WA and Sabularse, VC (2016) Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of selected fruits in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science 145, 275281.Google Scholar
Rishabha, M, Ajay, K and Anupama, S (2012) Pharmacological screening, Ayurvedic values and commercial utility of Aegle marmelos. International Journal of Drug Development and Research 4, 2837.Google Scholar
Rosati, A, Zipanćič, M, Caporali, S and Padula, G (2009) Fruit weight is related to ovary weight in olive (Olea europaea L). Scientia Horticulturae 122, 399403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadasivam, S and Manickam, A (1992) Biochemical Method for Agricultural Sciences. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 321333.Google Scholar
Sarkar, T, Salauddin, M and Chakraborty, R (2020) In-depth pharmacological and nutritional properties of bael (Aegle marmelos): a critical review. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 2, 100081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarkar, T, Salauddin, M, Roy, A, Sharma, N, Sharma, A, Yadav, S, Jha, V, Rebezov, M, Khayrullin, M, Thiruvengadam, M, Chung, IM, Shariati, MA and Simal-Gandara, J (2022) Minor tropical fruits as a potential source of bioactive and functional foods. Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition 14, 145.Google Scholar
Saroj, PL, More, TA and Singh, UV (2008) Performance of bael (Aegle marmelos) cultivars under hot arid ecosystem of Rajasthan. Indian Journal Agricultural Sciences 78, 10711074.Google Scholar
Sharma, CK and Sharma, V (2015) Analysis of Aegle marmelos L. diversity using citrus based microsatellite markers. Journal of Applied Horticulture 17, 217221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shinde, PB, Katekhaye, SD, Mulik, MB and Laddha, KS (2014) Rapid simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin from Aegle marmelos fruit by RP-HPLC. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51, 22512255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, AK, Pandey, AS and Verma, LR (2011) Guidelines for the conduct of test for distinctiveness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) of bael (Aegle marmelos Correa). The Test Guidelines developed by the Task Force (1/2011) constituted by the PPV FR Authority, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
Singh, AK, Singh, S and More, TA (2014) Preliminary evaluation of bael varieties under rainfed conditions of hot semi-arid ecosystem of western India. Indian Journal of Horticulture 71, 264268.Google Scholar
Singh, P, Jyothi, J, Reddy, PV and Shivashankara, KS (2018) Biochemical basis of host-plant resistance to shoot and fruit borer, Diaphania caesalis Wlk. in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 24, 814.Google Scholar
Singleton, VL, Orthofer, RO and Lamuela-Raventos, RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent methods. Methods in Enzymology 299, 152178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tagad, VB, Sahoo, AK and Annapure, US (2018) Phytochemical study and GC-MS analysis of bael (Aegle marmelos) fruit pulp. Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences 4, 779791.Google Scholar
Vardhini, SP, Sivaraj, C, Arumugam, P, Ranjan, H, Kumaran, T and Baskar, M (2018) Antioxidant anticancer antibacterial activities and GCMS analysis of aqueous extract of pulps of Aegle marmelos (L). Journal of Phytopharmacology 7, 7278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walvekar, S and Kaimal, P (2014) Comparative study of effect of physical and chemical mutagens on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos. International Journal of Advanced Research 2, 590595.Google Scholar
Zhang, G, Sebolt, AM, Sooriyapathirana, SS, Wang, D, Bink, MC, Olmstead, JW and Iezzoni, AF (2010) Fruit size QTL analysis of an F 1 population derived from a cross between a domesticated sweet cherry cultivar and a wild forest sweet cherry. Tree Genetics and Genomes 6, 2536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Chaturvedi et al. supplementary material
Download undefined(File)
File 2 MB