Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-75dct Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-24T14:43:37.827Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Assessment of phenotypic diversity and multi-locational screening against bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) disease resistance in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 July 2022

Talavar Basavaraja*
ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208024, India
Lakshmaiah Manjunatha
ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208024, India
Rahul Chandora
ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Shimla 171 004, India
Mohar Singh
ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Shimla 171 004, India
Santosha Rathod
ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad 500030, India
Vikas Dubey
ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208024, India
Kanishka R. C.
ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Shimla 171 004, India
Farindra Singh
ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208024, India
Narendra Pratap Singh
ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208024, India
Author for correspondence: Basavaraja T., E-mail:


Assessing genetic diversity and identifying trait-specific germplasm within germplasm collections is necessary for a varietal development programme. Agronomic features were investigated in 318 diverse dry bean germplasm accessions, including check varieties. We observed a lot of genetic variability for the traits studied. A wide range of variations was noticed for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, pod length, the number of seeds per pod and 100-seed weight (HSW). For eight of the agronomic features evaluated, the analysis of variance revealed substantial differences among the accessions. For all characters, phenotypic coefficient of variation estimations were more significant than genotypic coefficient of variation. Plant height, days to 50% flowering, seed yield (q/ha) and HSW had high heritability and genetic advance as a per cent of the mean. Association analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between HSW, plant height, pod length and seed yield (q/ha). According to a hierarchical clustering analysis based on agronomic features, the diversity of dry bean germplasm has no significant association with their geographical origin. The number of pods per plant, plant height, days to maturity, days to 50% flowering and seed yield had relatively long vectors based on principal components 1 and 2, indicating that genotypes differ significantly. Additionally, the trait-specific donors and bean common mosaic virus disease-resistant accessions, IC360831, ET4515, EC150250, IC340947, IC564797B, EC565693 and ET8409 could be of value for dry bean improvement.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of NIAB

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aravind, J, Mukesh Sankar, S, Wankhede, DP and Kaur, V (2021) Analysis of Augmented Randomized Complete Block Designs. R package version Scholar
Basavaraja, T, Lamichaney, A, Chaturvedi, SK, Sewak, S and Singh, NP (2017) Identification of potential rajmash germplasm with tolerance to cold stress condition during germination. IIPR Pulses Newsletter, Kanpur 28, 5.Google Scholar
Basavaraja, T, Pratap, A, Dubey, V, Gurumurthy, S, Gupta, S and Singh, NP (2020) Molecular and conventional breeding strategies for improving biotic stress resistance in common bean. In Gosal, SS and Wani, SH (eds), Accelerated Plant Breeding, Vol. 3. Cham: Springer, pp. 389421. Scholar
Basavaraja, T, Manjunatha, L, Chandora, R, Gurumurthy, S and Singh, NP (2021) Assessment of genetic variability, diversity and trait correlation analysis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Legume Research 44, 252260.Google Scholar
Beebe, S, Rengifo, J, Gaita'n-Solı's, E, Duque, MC and Tohme, J (2001) Diversity and origin of Andean landraces of common bean. Crop Science 41, 854862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blair, MW, Díaz, LM, Buendia, HF and Duque, MC (2009) Genetic diversity, seed size associations and population structure of a core collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 119, 955973.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blair, MW, Soler, A and Cortés, AJ (2012) Diversification and population structure in common beans(Phaseolus vulgaris L.). PLoS ONE 7, e49488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burton, GW and Devane, EM (1953) Estimating heritability in tall fescue (Festuca circunelinaceae) form replicated clonal material. Agronomy Journal 45, 478–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caproni, L, Raggi, L, Ceccarelli, S, Negri, V and Carboni, A (2019) In-depth characterization of common bean diversity discloses its breeding potential for sustainable agriculture. Sustainability 11, 5443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drijfhout, E (1978) Genetic interaction between Phaseolus vulgaris and bean common mosaic virus with implications for strain identification and breeding resistance. Agricultural Research Reports 872, 198.Google Scholar
FAOSTAT (2019) Available online: (Accessed on 20 February 2021).Google Scholar
Federer, WT (1956) Augmented designs. Hawaiian Planters’ Record 55, 191208.Google Scholar
Federer, WT and Searle, SR (1976) Model Considerations and Variance Component Estimation in Augmented Completely Randomized and Randomized Complete Blocks Designs-Preliminary Version. Technical Report BU-592-M, Cornell University, New York.Google Scholar
Gepts, P and Debouck, DG (1991) Origin, domestication and evolution of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In van Schoonhoven, A and Voysest, O (eds), Common Beans: Research for Crop Improvement. Cali, Colombia: CAB Int Wallingford, Reino Unido and CIAT, pp. 753.Google Scholar
Hamid, A, Ahmad, M, Padder, BA, Shah, MD, Sehar, S, Sofi, TA and Mir, AA (2013) Pathogenic and coat protein characterization confirming the occurrence of bean common mosaic virus on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kashmir, India. Phytoparasitica 42, 317322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapil, R, Sharma, OP, Sharma, PN, Sharma, SK and Padder, BA (2005) Pathogenic variability in BCMV in Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 35, 551 (abstract).Google Scholar
Kapil, R, Sharma, P, Sharma, SK, Sharma, OP, Dhar, JB and Sharma, PN (2011) Pathogenic and molecular variability in bean common mosaic virus infecting common bean in India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 44, 10811092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, JD (1997) A reviews of varietal response to bean common mosaic potyvirus in Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Varieties and Seeds 10, 16.Google Scholar
Kumar, V, Sharma, S, Sharma, AK, Kumar, M, Sharma, S, Malik, S, Singh, KP, Sanger, RS and Bhat, KV (2014) Genetic diversity in Indian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 14, 384387.Google Scholar
Kwak, M and Gepts, P (2009) Structure of genetic diversity in the two major gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 118, 979992.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mahalanobis, PC (1936) On the generalized distance in statistics. Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India 12, 4955.Google Scholar
Manjunatha, L, Basavaraja, T, Manjunatha, N, Srinivasa, N, Kumar, V, Chandora, R, Singh, M and Singh, NP (2021) Identification of stable resistant donors against necrosis inducing strain of bean common mosaic virus in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 54(15-16), 10331046. Scholar
Manyasa, EO, Silim, SN, Githiri, SM and Christiansen, JL (2008) Diversity in Tanzanian pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) landraces and their response to environments. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55, 379387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazid, MS, Rafii, MY, Hanafi, MM, Rahim, HA, Shabanimofrad, M and Latif, MA (2013) Agro-morphological characterization and assessment of variability, heritability, genetic advance and divergence in bacterial blight resistant rice genotypes. South African Journal of Botany 86, 1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melotto, M, Afanador, L and Kelly, JD (1996) Development of a SCAR marker linked to the I gene in common bean. Genome 39, 12161219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miklas, PN, Larsen, RC, Riley, R and Kelly, JD (2000) Potential marker assisted selection for bc-12 resistance to bean common mosaic potyvirus in common bean. Euphytica 116, 211219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miklas, PN, Kelly, JD, Beebe, SE and Blair, MW (2005) Common bean breeding for resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses: from classical to MAS breeding. Euphytica 147, 105113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mukeshimana, GA, Pãneda, C, Rodriguez, JJ, Ferreira, R, Giraldez, R and Kelly, JD (2005) Markers linked to the bc-3 gene conditioning resistance to bean common mosaic potyviruses in common bean. Euphytica 144, 291299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagaich, BB and Vashisth, KS (1963) A virus causing a typical mosaic disease of bean. Indian Journal of Microbiology 3, 113116.Google Scholar
Raggi, L, Tiranti, B and Negri, V (2013) Italian common bean landraces: diversity and population structure. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60, 15151530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rana, JC, Singh, A, Sharma, Y, Pradheep, K and Mendiratta, N (2010) Dynamics of plant bio-resources in the western Himalayan region of India – watershed based case study. Current Science 98, 192203.Google Scholar
Rana, JC, Sharma, TR, Tyagi, RK, Chahota, RK, Gautam, NK, Singh, M, Sharma, PN and Ojha, SN (2015) Characterization of 4274 accessions of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm conserved in the Indian gene bank for phenological, morphological and agricultural traits. Euphytica 205, 441457. Scholar
Rodiño, AP, Monteagudo, AB, De Ron, AM and Santalla, M (2009) Ancestral landraces of common bean from the south of Europe and their agronomical value for breeding programs. Crop Science 49, 20872099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodriguez, M, Rau, D, Bitocchi, E, Bellucci, E, Biagetti, E, Carboni, A, Gepts, P, Nanni, L and Papa, RA (2016) Landscape genetics, adaptive diversity and population structure in Phaseolus vulgaris. New Phytologist 209, 17811794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santalla, M, Rodiño, AP and De Ron, AM (2002) Allozyme evidence supporting south western Europe as a secondary center of genetic diversity for common bean. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104, 934944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharma, TR, Rana, JC, Sharma, R, Rathour, R and Sharma, PN (2006) Genetic diversity analysis on exotic and Indian accessions of common bean using RAPD markers. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 66, 275278.Google Scholar
Sharma, PN, Pathania, A, Kapil, R, Sharma, P, Sharma, OP, Patial, M and Kapoor, V (2008) Resistance to bean common mosaic potyvirus strain and its inheritance in some Indian landraces of common bean. Euphytica 164, 173180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharma, PN, Sharma, V, Sharma, A, Rajput, K and Sharma, SK (2015) Identification and molecular characterization of bean yellow mosaic virus infecting French bean in Himachal Pradesh. VirusDisease 26, 315318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sicard, D, Nanni, L, Porfiri, O, Bulfon, D and Papa, R (2005) Genetic diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaselous coccineus L. landraces in central Italy. Plant Breeding 124, 464472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sofi, PA, Rana, JC and Bhat, NA (2014) Pattern of variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genetic resources of Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Food Legumes 27, 197201.Google Scholar
Upadhyaya, HD, Reddy, KN, Gowda, CLL and Singh, S (2007) Phenotypic diversity in the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) core collection. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54, 11671184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yaraguntaiah, RC and Nariani, TK (1963) Bean mosaic virus in India. Indian Journal of Microbiology 3, 147150.Google Scholar
Zeven, AC (1997) The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry bean collected in The Netherlands in 1946. Euphytica 94, 319328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Basavaraja et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S3 and Figure S1

Download Basavaraja et al. supplementary material(File)
File 819.8 KB