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Article contents

Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and associated risk factors in women in selected districts of Punjab province, Pakistan

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2020

Shahzad Ali*
Affiliation:
Wildlife Epidemiology and Molecular Microbiology Laboratory (One Health Research Group), Discipline of Zoology, Department of Wildlife & Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Ravi Campus, Pattoki, Pakistan
Zona Amjad
Affiliation:
Wildlife Epidemiology and Molecular Microbiology Laboratory (One Health Research Group), Discipline of Zoology, Department of Wildlife & Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Ravi Campus, Pattoki, Pakistan
Tahir Mahmood Khan
Affiliation:
Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Sunway City, Selangor 45700, Malaysia
Abdul Maalik
Affiliation:
Wildlife Epidemiology and Molecular Microbiology Laboratory (One Health Research Group), Discipline of Zoology, Department of Wildlife & Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Ravi Campus, Pattoki, Pakistan
Anam Iftikhar
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Ravi Campus, Pattoki, Pakistan
Iahtasham Khan
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang, Pakistan
Haroon Ahmed
Affiliation:
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Park Road, Chakh Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding
Author for correspondence: Shahzad Ali, E-mail: shahzad.ali@uvas.edu.pk

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma (T.) gondii. Limited data are available on the occurrence of T. gondii in women especially pregnant women in Pakistan. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and risk factors associated with T. gondii in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Punjab Province, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 593 samples were collected from pregnant (n = 293) and non-pregnant (n = 300) women of District Headquarter Hospitals of Chiniot, Faisalabad, Jhang and Okara, Pakistan. Data related to demographic parameters and risk factors were collected using a pretested questionnaire on blood sampling day. Serum samples were screened for antibodies (IgG) against T. gondii using ELISA. A univariant and binomial logistic regression was applied to estimate the association between seropositive and explanatory variables considering the 95% confidence interval. P value ⩽0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analysis. Out of 593, 44 (7.42%) women were seropositive for T. gondii IgG antibodies. Occupation, age, sampling location, socioeconomic status, contact with cat, pregnancy status and trimester of pregnancy were significantly associated with seropositivity for T. gondii antibodies. Location and trimester of pregnancy were identified as potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity based on binomial logistic regression. Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Therefore, now a necessitated awareness is required to instruct the individuals about these infectious diseases (toxoplasmosis) and their control strategies to maintain the health of human population. Moreover, health awareness among public can help the minimization of T. gondii infection during pregnancy and subsequent risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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