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Molecular data show Clinostomoides Dollfus, 1950 is a junior synonym of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856, with redescription of metacercariae of Clinostomum brieni n. comb.

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 January 2019

Monica Caffara*
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Sean A. Locke
Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Box 9000, Mayagüez, 00681-9000, Puerto Rico
Ali Halajian
Department of Biodiversity, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa
Wilmien J. Luus-Powell
Department of Biodiversity, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa
Deborah Benini
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Perla Tedesco
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Gyrhaiss Kapepula Kasembele
Unité de recherché en Biodiversité et Exploitation durable des Zones Humides (BEZHU), Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université de Lubumbashi, Haut-Katanga, R.D. Congo
Maria L. Fioravanti
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Author for correspondence: Monica Caffara, E-mail:


The genus Clinostomoides Dollfus, 1950 was erected to accommodate a single worm from Ardea goliath sampled in the Belgian Congo. The specimen was distinguished from other clinostomids by its large size and posterior genitalia. In the following years, metacercariae of Clinostomoides brieni, have been described in Clarias spp. in southern and western Africa. A few authors have referred to Clinostomum brieni, but all such usages appear to be lapsus calami, and the validity of Clinostomoides remains widely accepted. In this study our aim was: position C. brieni among the growing clinostomids molecular database, and redescribe the species with emphasis on characters that have emerged as important in recent work. We sequenced two nuclear (partial 18S and ITS) and one mitochondrial marker (partial cytochrome c oxidase I) and studied morphology in metacercariae from hosts and localities likely to harbour the type species (Clarias spp., Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa). Phylogenetic analysis shows C. brieni belongs within Clinostomum Leidy, 1856. We therefore transfer C. brieni to Clinostomum, amend the diagnosis for the genus Clinostomum and provide a critical analysis of other species in Clinostomoides, all of which we consider species inquirendae, as they rest on comparisons of different developmental stages.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

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