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Haplosporosomes, sporoplasmosomes and their putative taxonomic relationships in rhizarians and myxozoans

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2020

P.M. Hine
73 rue de la Fée au Bois, Fouras, 17450, France
D.J. Morris
Marine Scotland Science, Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Laboratory, Faskally, Pitlochry, Perthshire, PH16 5LB, Scotland
C. Azevedo
Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Matosinhos, Portugal Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS/UP), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
S.W. Feist
CEFAS Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB, England
G. Casal
Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS/UP), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal University Institute of Health Sciences & Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, CESPU, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal
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This paper reviews current knowledge of the structure, genesis, cytochemistry and putative functions of the haplosporosomes of haplosporidians (Urosporidium, Haplosporidium, Bonamia, Minchinia) and paramyxids (Paramyxa, Paramyxoides, Marteilia, Marteilioides, Paramarteilia), and the sporoplasmosomes of myxozoans (Myxozoa – Malacosporea, Myxosporea). In all 3 groups, these bodies occur in plasmodial trophic stages, disappear at the onset of sporogony, and reappear in the spore. Some haplosporidian haplosporosomes lack the internal membrane regarded as characteristic of these bodies and that phylum. Haplosporidian haplosporogenesis is through the Golgi (spherulosome in the spore), either to form haplosporosomes at the trans-Golgi network, or for the Golgi to produce formative bodies from which membranous vesicles bud, thus acquiring the external membrane. The former method also forms sporoplasmosomes in malacosporeans, while the latter is the common method of haplosporogenesis in paramyxids. Sporoplasmogenesis in myxosporeans is largely unknown. The haplosporosomes of Haplosporidium nelsoni and sporoplasmosomes of malacosporeans are similar in arraying themselves beneath the plasmodial plasma membrane with their internal membranes pointing to the exterior, possibly to secrete their contents to lyse host cells or repel haemocytes. It is concluded that these bodies are probably multifunctional within and between groups, their internal membranes separating different functional compartments, and their origin may be from common ancestors in the Neoproterozoic.

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Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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