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Angiostrongylus cantonensis in urban populations of terrestrial gastropods and rats in an impoverished region of Brazil

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 April 2021

Fábio N. Souza*
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, Salvador, Brazil
Maísa Aguiar Santos
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, Salvador, Brazil
Daniele Almeida Alves
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, Salvador, Brazil
Leyva Cecília Vieira de Melo
Affiliation:
Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil
Dan Jessé Gonçalves da Mota
Affiliation:
Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil
Arsinoê Cristina Pertile
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, Salvador, Brazil
Ricardo Gava
Affiliation:
Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil
Pedro Luiz Silva Pinto
Affiliation:
Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil
Max T. Eyre
Affiliation:
Centre for Health Informatics, Computing, and Statistics, Lancaster University Medical School, Lancaster, UK
Caio Graco Zeppelini
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil
Mitermayer G. Reis
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, Salvador, Brazil Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Disease, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, USA
Albert I. Ko
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Disease, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, USA
Mike Begon
Affiliation:
Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Thiago C. Bahiense
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil
Federico Costa
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, Salvador, Brazil Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Disease, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, USA Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Ticiana Carvalho-Pereira
Affiliation:
Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA, Salvador, Brazil Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, Salvador, Brazil
*
Author for correspondence: Fábio N. Souza, E-mail: fabionevesouza@gmail.com

Abstract

The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis (manifested as eosinophilic meningitis) in humans. Gastropod molluscs are used as intermediate hosts and rats of various species are definitive hosts of this parasite. In this study, we identified several environmental factors associated with the presence and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in an impoverished urban region in Brazil. We also found that body condition, age and presence of co-infection with other parasite species in urban Rattus norvegicus, as well as environmental factors were associated with the probability and intensity of A. cantonensis infection. The study area was also found to have a moderate prevalence of the nematode in rodents (33% of 168 individuals). Eight species of molluscs (577 individuals) were identified, four of which were positive for A. cantonensis. Our study indicates that the environmental conditions of poor urban areas (presence of running and standing water, sewage, humidity and accumulated rain and accumulation of construction materials) influenced both the distribution and abundance of terrestrial gastropods, as well as infected rats, contributing to the maintenance of the A. cantonensis transmission cycle in the area. Besides neuroangiostrongyliasis, the presence of these hosts may also contribute to susceptibility to other zoonoses.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Footnotes

*

These authors contributed equally to this work.

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