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Verifiability of genus-level classification under quantification and parsimony theories: a case study of follicucullid radiolarians

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 August 2020

Yifan Xiao
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan430074, China. E-mail: yifanxiao@cug.edu.cn, whzhang@cug.edu.cn
Noritoshi Suzuki
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai980-8578, Japan. E-mail: noritoshi.suzuki.d3@tohoku.ac.jp
Weihong He
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan430074, China. E-mail: yifanxiao@cug.edu.cn, whzhang@cug.edu.cn
Michael J. Benton
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, BristolBS8 1RJ, U.K. E-mail: mike.benton@bristol.ac.uk
Tinglu Yang
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences, East China University of Technology, Nanchang330013, China. E-mail: yang@geology.hk
Chenyang Cai
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing210008, China. E-mail: cycai@nigpas.ac.cn

Abstract

The classical taxonomy of fossil invertebrates is based on subjective judgments of morphology, which can cause confusion, because there are no codified standards for the classification of genera. Here, we explore the validity of the genus taxonomy of 75 species and morphospecies of the Follicucullidae, a late Paleozoic family of radiolarians, using a new method, Hayashi's quantification theory II (HQT-II), a general multivariate statistical method for categorical datasets relevant to discriminant analysis. We identify a scheme of 10 genera rather than the currently accepted 3 genera (Follicucullus, Ishigaconus, and Parafollicucullus). As HQT-II cannot incorporate stratigraphic data, a phylogenetic tree of Follicucullidae was reconstructed for 38 species using maximum parsimony. Six lineages emerged, roughly in concordance with the results of HQT-II. Combined with parsimony ancestral state reconstruction, the ancestral group of this family is Haplodiacanthus. Five other groups were discriminated, the Parafollicucullus, Curvalbaillella, Pseudoalbaillella, Longtanella, and FollicucullusCariver lineages. The morphological evolution of these lineages comprises a minimum essential list of eight states of four traits. HQT-II is a novel discriminant analytical multivariate method that may be of value in other taxonomic problems of paleobiology.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Paleontological Society

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Footnotes

Data available from the Dryad Digital Repository:https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.547d7wm5r

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