Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-9v52d Total loading time: 0.382 Render date: 2021-10-25T14:53:17.172Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Neutering in dogs and cats: current scientific evidence and importance of adequate nutritional management

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 January 2020

Thiago H. A. Vendramini
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Production of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Ave. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, SP, 13635-900, Brazil
Andressa R. Amaral
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Ave. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil
Vivian Pedrinelli
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Ave. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil
Rafael V. A. Zafalon
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Production of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Ave. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, SP, 13635-900, Brazil
Roberta B. A. Rodrigues
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Production of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Ave. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, SP, 13635-900, Brazil
Marcio A. Brunetto*
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Production of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Ave. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, SP, 13635-900, Brazil
*
*Corresponding author: Marcio A. Brunetto, email mabrunetto@usp.br

Abstract

Neutering or spaying is a commonly recommended veterinary procedure. However, veterinarians are often confronted with conflicting findings and differences in concepts regarding practice and proper nutritional management after the procedure. The objective of the present review was to bring to light the most recent literature, summarise it and discuss the findings focusing on the risks and benefits of neutering in dogs and cats, and to determine the appropriate nutritional management for these animals.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
© The Authors 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Kustritz, MVR (2002) Early spay-neuter: clinical considerations. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 17, 124128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kustritz, MVR (2007) Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 231, 16651675.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howe, LM (2006) Surgical methods of contraception and sterilization. Theriogenology 66, 500509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bailey, CS (2016) Non-cancerous conditions associated with spay/neuter status in the canine. Clin Theriogenol 8, 203206.Google Scholar
Reichler, IM (2009) Gonadectomy in cats and dogs: a review of risks and benefits. Reprod Domest Anim 44, 2935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houlihan, KE (2017) A literature review on the welfare implications of gonadectomy of dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 250, 11551166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howe, LM (2015) Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats. J Vet Med Res 6, 171180.Google ScholarPubMed
Beaver, BV (editor) (2001) Canine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians. São Paulo: Roca.Google Scholar
OiE World Organisation for Animal Health (2019) Stray dog population control. https://www.oie.int/index.php?id=169&L=0&htmfile=chapitre_aw_stray_dog.htm (accessed September 2019).Google Scholar
Berthoud, D, Nevison, C, Waterhouse, J, et al. (2011) The prevalence of neutered pet dogs (Canis familiaris) across countries of the Western world. J Vet Behav 6, 7778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trevejo, R, Yang, M & Lund, EM (2011) Epidemiology of surgical castration of dogs and cats in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 238, 898904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frye, FL, Dorn, CR, Taylor, DN, et al. (1967) Characteristics of canine mammary gland tumor cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 3, 112.Google Scholar
Dorn, CR, Taylor, DN, Frye, FL, et al. (1968) Survey of animal neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California I. Methodology and description of cases. J Nat Cancer Inst 40, 295305.Google ScholarPubMed
Schneider, RA (1975) A population based animal tumor registry. In Animal Disease Monitoring, pp. 162172 [Ingram, DG, Mitchell, WR and Martin, SW, editors]. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
Beauvais, W, Cardwell, JM & Brodbelt, DC (2012) The effect of neutering on the risk of mammary tumours in dogs – a systematic review. J Small Anim Pract 53, 314322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, SC, Chang, CC, Chang, TJ, et al. (2005) Prognostic factors associated with survival two years after surgery in dogs with malignant mammary tumors: 79 cases (1998–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 227, 16251629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Itoh, T, Uchida, K, Ishaikawa, K, et al. (2005) Clinicopathological survey of 101 canine mammary gland tumors: differences between small-breed dogs and others. J Vet Med Sci 67, 345347.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brodey, RS, Fidler, IJ, Howson, AE, et al. (1966) The relationship of estrous irregularity, pseudopregnancy, and pregnancy to the development of canine mammary neoplasms. J Am Vet Med Assoc 149, 10471049.Google ScholarPubMed
Schneider, R, Dorn, CR, Taylor, DON, et al. (2000) Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival. J Natl Cancer Inst 43, 12491261.Google Scholar
Sorenmo, KU, Shofer, SF, Goldschmidt, MH, et al. (2000) Effect of spaying and timing of spaying on survival of dogs with mammary carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med 14, 266270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henderson, BE, Ross, R, Bernstein, L, et al. (1988) Estrogens as a cause of human cancer: The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation Award Lecture. Cancer Res 48, 246253.Google ScholarPubMed
Hulka, BS, Edison, TL, Lininger, RA, et al. (1994) Steroid hormones and risk of breast cancer. Cancer 74, 11111124.3.0.CO;2-L>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacMahon, B, Cole, P, Brown, J, et al. (1973) Etiology of human breast cancer: a review. J Natl Cancer Inst 50, 2141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Key, TJA & Pike, MC (1988) The role of estrogens and prostagens in the epidemiology and prevention of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 24, 2943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waters, DJ, Kengerie, SS, Maras, AH, et al. (2017) Life course analysis of the impact of mammary cancer and pyometra on age-anchored life expectancy in female Rottweilers: implications for envisioning ovary conservation as a strategy to promote healthy longevity in pet dogs. Vet J 224, 2537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutteman, GR & Misdorp, W (1993) Hormonal background of canine and feline mammary tumors. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 47, 483487.Google Scholar
Overley, B, Shofer, FS, Goldschmidt, MH, et al. (2005) Association between ovariohysterectomy and feline mammary carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med 19, 560563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henry, CJ (2009) Mammary cancer. In Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIV, 14th ed., pp. 363368 [Bonagura, JD and Twedt, DC, editors]. St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.Google Scholar
Johnston, SD, Root Kustritz, MV & Olson, PN (editors) (2001) Disorders of the canine testes and epididymes. In Canine and Feline Theriogenology, pp. 312332. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.Google Scholar
Towle, HA (2012) Testes and scrotum. In Veterinary Surgery: Small Animal, pp. 19061907 [Tobias, KM and Johnston, SA, editors]. St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.Google Scholar
Wolke, R (1963) Vaginal leiomyoma as a cause of chronic constipation in the cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 143, 11031105.Google ScholarPubMed
Stein, B (1981) Tumors of the genital tract. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 17, 10221025.Google Scholar
Thacher, C & Bradley, RL (1983) Vulvar and vaginal tumors in the dog: a retrospective study. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183, 690692.Google ScholarPubMed
Kydd, DM & Burnie, AG (1986) Vaginal neoplasia in the bitch – a review of 40 clinical cases. J Small Anim Pract 27, 255263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brodey, RS & Roszel, JF (1967) Neoplasms of the canine uterus, vagina, and vulva: a clinicopathologic survey of 90 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 151, 12941307.Google ScholarPubMed
Saba, CF & Lawrence, JA (2013) Tumors of the female reproductive system. In Withrow MacEwen’s Small Animal Clinical Oncology eBook, 5th ed., pp. 532536 [Withrow, SJ, Vail, DM and Page, RL, editors]. St Louis, MO: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herron, MA (1983) Tumors of the canine genital system. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 19, 981994.Google Scholar
Teske, E, Naan, EC, Dijk, VEM, et al. (2002) Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiologycal evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Mol Cell Endocrinol 197, 251255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al Omari, R, Shidaifat, F & Dardaka, M (2005) Castration induced changes in dog prostate gland associated with diminished activin and activin receptor expression. Life Sci 77, 27522759.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heuter, KJ (2008) Diseases of the prostate. In Handbook of Small Animal Practice, 5th ed., pp. 559568 [Morgan, RV, editor]. St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, PF, Taylor, R, Williamson, P, et al. (2018) Demographic risk factors for lymphoma in Australian dogs: 6201 cases. J Vet Intern Med 32, 20542060.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verstegen-Onclin, K & Verstegen, J (2006) Non-reproductive effects of spaying and neutering: effects on the urogenital system. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control, Alexandria, Virginia, November 2016. https://www.acc-d.org/resource-library/symposia/3rd-symposium (accessed December 2019).Google Scholar
Arnold, S (1997) Urinary incontinence in castrated bitches. 2. Diagnosis and treatment. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 139, 319324.Google ScholarPubMed
Spain, CV, Scarlett, J, Cully, S, et al. (2002) When to neuter dogs and cats: a survey of New York State veterinarians’ practices and beliefs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 38, 482488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lekcharoensuk, C, Osborne, CA, Lulich, JP, et al. (2001) Epidemiologic study of risk factors for lower urinary tract diseases in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218, 14291435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stubbs, WP, Bloomberg, MS, Scruggs, SL, et al. (1996) Effects of prepubertal gonadectomy on physical and behavioral development in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 209, 18641871.Google ScholarPubMed
Root, MV, Johnston, SD, Olson, PN, et al. (1997) The effect of prepuberal and postpuberal gonadectomy on radial physeal closure in male and female domestic cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 38, 4247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogers, KS (1997) Transmissible venereal tumor. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 19, 10361045.Google Scholar
Das, U & Das, AK (2000) Review of canine transmissible venereal sarcoma. Vet Res Commun 24, 545556.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woods, JP (2013) Canine transmissible venereal tumor. In Withrow MacEwen’s Small Animal Clinical Oncology eBook, 5th ed., pp. 692696 [Withrow, SJ, Vail, DM and Page, RL, editors]. St Louis, MO: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Ware, WA & Hopper, DL (1999) Cardiac tumors in dogs: 1982–1995. J Vet Intern Med 13, 95103.Google ScholarPubMed
Hoffman, JM, Creevy, KE & Promislow, DE (2013) Reproductive capability is associated with lifespan and cause of death in companion dogs. PLOS ONE 8, e61082.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kent, MS, Burton, JH, Dank, G, et al. (2018) Association of cancer-related mortality, age and gonadectomy in golden retriever dogs at a veterinary academic center (1989–2016). PLOS ONE 13, e0192578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hart, BL, Hart, LA, Thigpen, AP, et al. (2016) Neutering of German shepherd dogs: associated joint disorders, cancers and urinary incontinence. Vet Med Sci 16, 191199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zink, MC, Farhoody, P, Elser, SE, et al. (2013) Evaluation of the risk and age of onset of cancer and behavioral disorders in gonadectomized Vizslas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 244, 309319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sundburg, CR, Belanger, JM, Bannasch, DL, et al. (2016) Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study. BMC Vet Res 12, 278288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanriverdi, F, Silveira, L, Maccoll, G, et al. (2003) The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis: immune function and autoimmunity. J Endocrinol 176, 293304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossman, CJ (1985) Interactions between the gonadal steroids and the immune system. Science 227, 257261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahmed, SA, Penhale, W & Talal, N (1985) Sex hormones, immune responses, and autoimmune diseases. Mechanisms of sex hormone action. Am J Pathol 121, 531551.Google Scholar
Moore, GE, Guptill, LF, Ward, MP, et al. (2005) Adverse events diagnosed within 3 days of vaccine administration in pet dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227, 11021108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, GE, DeSantis-Kerr, AC, Guptill, LF, et al. (2007) Adverse events after vaccine administration in cats: 2,560 cases (2002–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 231, 94100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, MS, Chae, HJ, Shin, TY, et al. (2001) Estrogen regulates cytokine release in human mast cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 23, 495504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Page, ST, Plymate, SR, Bremner, WJ, et al. (2006) Effect of medical castration on CD4+CD25+ T cells, CD8+ T cell IFN-γ expression, and NK cells: a physiological role for testosterone and/or its metabolites. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290, 856863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, AB & Sohrabji, F (2005) Estrogen’s effects on central and circulating immune cells vary with reproductive age. Neurobiol Aging 26, 13651374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salmeri, K, Bloomberg, M, Scruggs, SL, et al. (1991) Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198, 1193–203.Google ScholarPubMed
Kustritz, MVR (2012) Effects of surgical sterilization on canine and feline health and on society. Reprod Domest Anim 47, 214222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torres De La Riva, G, Hart, BL, Farver, TB, et al. (2013) Neutering dogs: effects on joint disorders and cancers in golden retrievers. PLOS ONE 8, e55937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, BL, Hart, LA, Thigpen, AP, et al. (2014) Long-term health effects of neutering dogs: comparison of Labrador retrievers with golden retrievers. PLOS ONE 9, e102241.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ekenstedt, KJ (2017) DNM1 mutation status, sex, and sterilization status of a cohort of Labrador retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Canine Genet Epidemiol 4, 2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNicholas, WT, Wilkens, BE, Blevins, WE, et al. (2002) Spontaneous femoral capital physeal fractures in adult cats: 26 cases (1996–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 221, 17311736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perry, KL, Fordham, A & Arthurs, GI (2014) Effect of neutering and breed on femoral and tibial physeal closure times in male and female domestic cats. J Feline Med Surg 16, 149156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, BL & Eckstein, RA (1997) The role of gonadal hormones in the occurrence of objectionable behaviours in dogs and cats. Appl Anim Behav Sci 52, 331344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patronek, GJ, Glickman, LT, Beck, AM, et al. (1996) Risk factors for relinquishment of dogs to an animal shelter. J Am Vet Med Assoc 209, 572581.Google Scholar
Spain, CV, Scarlett, JM, Houpt, KA, et al. (2004) Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224, 372379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hopkins, SG, Schubert, TA, Hart, BL, et al. (1976) Castration of adult male dogs: effects on roaming, aggression, urine marking, and mounting. J Am Vet Med Assoc 168, 11081110.Google ScholarPubMed
Nielsen, JC, Eckstein, RA, Hart, BL, et al. (1997) Effects of castration on problem behaviors in male dogs with reference to age and duration of behavior. J Am Vet Med Assoc 211, 180182.Google Scholar
Hart, BL & Barrett, RE (1973) Effects of castration on fighting, roaming, and urine spraying in adult male cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 163, 290292.Google ScholarPubMed
Duffy, DL, Hsu, YY & Serpell, JA (2008) Breed differences in canine aggression. Appl Anim Behav Sci 114, 441460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farhoody, P, Mallawaarachchi, I, Tarwater, PM, et al. (2018) Aggression toward familiar people, strangers, and conspecifics in gonadectomized and intact dogs. Front Vet Sci 26, 518.Google Scholar
Scandurra, A, Alterisio, A, Di Cosmo, A, et al. (2019) Ovariectomy impairs socio-cognitive functions in dogs. Animals (Basel) 9, E58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valcke, A (2017) Prepubertal gonadectomy in cats: long-term effects on behaviour. Masters Thesis, Ghent University.Google Scholar
Janowsky, JS (2006) The role of androgens in cognition and brain aging in men. Neuroscience 138, 10151020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, DJ, Shen, S, Glickman, LT, et al. (2000) Life expectancy, antagonistic pleiotropy, and the testis of dogs and men. Prostate 43, 272277.3.0.CO;2-D>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibbs, RB & Johnson, DA (2008) Sex-specific effects of gonadectomy and hormone treatment on acquisition of a 12-arm radial maze task by Sprague Dawley rats. Endocrinology 149, 31763183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spritzer, MD, Gill, M, Weinberg, A, et al. (2008) Castration differentially affects spatial working and reference memory in male rats. Archiv Sex Behav 37, 1929.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spritzer, MD, Daviaub, ED, Coneenya, MK, et al. (2011) Effects of testosterone on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats. Horm Behav 59, 484496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner, BA, Braddick, VC, Batson, CG, et al. (2017) Effects of testosterone dose on spatial memory among castrated adult male rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology 89, 120130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mongillo, P, Scandurra, A, D’Aniello, B, et al. (2017) Effect of sex and gonadectomy on dogs’ spatial performance. Appl Anim Behav Sci 191, 8489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spain, CV, Scarlett, JM & Houpt, KA (2004) Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224, 372379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGreevy, PD, Wilson, B, Starling, MJ, et al. (2018) Behavioural risks in male dogs with minimal lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones may complicate population-control benefits of desexing. PLOS ONE 13, e0196284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burrow, R, Batchelor, D, Cripps, P, et al. (2005) Complications observed during and after ovariohysterectomy of bitches at a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Rec 157, 829833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollari, FL, Bonnett, BN, Bamsey, SC, et al. (1996) Postoperative complications of elective surgeries in dogs and cats determined by examining electronic and paper medical records. J Am Vet Med Assoc 208, 18821886.Google ScholarPubMed
Epstein, ME, Rodan, I, Griffenhagen, G, et al. (2015) AAHA/AAFP pain management guidelines for dogs and cats. J Feline Med Surg 17, 251272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia (2016) American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists’ position paper on the treatment of pain in animals. https://www.acvaa.org/docs/Pain_Treatment (accessed September 2019).Google Scholar
de Godoy, MRC (2018) Pancosma comparative gut physiology symposium: all about appetite regulation: effects of diet and gonadal steroids on appetite regulation and food intake of companion animals. J Anim Sci 96, 35263536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fettman, MJ, Stanton, CA, Banks, LL, et al. (1997) Effects of neutering on bodyweight, metabolic rate and glucose tolerance of domestic cats. Res Vet Sci 62, 131136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houpt, KA, Coren, B, Hintz, HF, et al. (1979) Effect of sex and reproductive status on sucrose preference, food intake and body weight of dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174, 10831085.Google ScholarPubMed
Jeusette, I, Detilleux, J, Cuvelier, C, et al. (2004) Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 88, 117121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Butera, PC (2010) Estradiol and the control of food intake. Physiol Behav 99, 175180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanchuk, M, Backus, RC, Calvert, CC, et al. (2003) Weight gain in gonadectomized normal and lipoprotein lipase-deficient male domestic cats results from increased food intake and not decreased energy expenditure. J Nutr 133, 18661874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mystkowski, P & Schwartz, MW (2000) Gonadal steroids and energy homeostasis in the leptin era. Nutrition 16, 937946.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allaway, D, Gilham, M, Colyer, A, et al. (2017) The impact of time of neutering on weight gain and energy intake in female kittens. J Nutr Sci 6, e19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schauf, S, Salas-Mani, A, Torre, C, et al. (2016) Effect of sterilization and of dietary fat and carbohydrate content on food intake, activity level, and blood satiety-related hormones in female dogs. J Anim Sci 94, 42394250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Michel, KE (2012) Nutritional management of body weight. In Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition, pp. 109124 [Fascetti, AJ and Delaney, SJ, editors]. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Panciera, DL, Thomas, CB, Eicker, SW, et al. (1990) Epizootiologic patterns of diabetes mellitus in cats: 333 cases (1980–1986). J Am Vet Med Assoc 197, 15041508.Google Scholar
McCann, TM, Simpson, KE, Shaw, DJ, et al. (2007) Feline diabetes mellitus in the UK: the prevalence within an insured cat population and a questionnaire-based putative risk factor analysis. J Feline Med Surg 9, 289299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prahl, A, Guptill, L, Glickman, NW, et al. (2007) Time trends and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in cats presented to veterinary teaching hospitals. J Feline Med Surg 9, 351358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoenig, M & Ferguson, DC (2002) Effects of neutering on hormonal concentrations and energy requirements in male and female cats. Am J Vet Res 63, 634639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanchuk, ML, Backus, RC, Calvert, CC, et al. (2002) Neutering induces changes in food intake, body weight, plasma insulin and leptin concentrations in normal and lipoprotein lipase-deficient male cats. J Nutr 132, 17301732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Le Roux, PH (1983) Thyroid status, oestradiol level, work performance and body mass of ovariectomised bitches and bitches bearing ovarian autotransplants in the stomach wall. J S Afr Vet Assoc 54, 115117.Google ScholarPubMed
Bermingham, EN, Thomas, DG, Morris, PJ, et al. (2010) Energy requirements of adult cats. Br J Nutr 103, 10831093.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitsuhashi, Y, Chamberlin, AJ, Bigley, KE, et al. (2011) Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying. Br J Nutr 106, 135138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bermingham, EN, Thomas, DG, Cave, NC, et al. (2014) Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 9, e109681.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Research Council (2006) Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington, DC: National Research Council of the National Academies.Google Scholar
FEDIAF (European Pet Food Industry Federation) (2018) Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs. Brussels: European Pet Food Industry Federation.Google Scholar
Colliard, L, Paragon, BM, Lemuet, B, et al. (2009) Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats. J Feline Med Surg 11, 135140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines Task Force Members (2011) WSAVA nutritional assessment guidelines. J Small Anim Pract 52, 385396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spofford, N, Mougeot, V, Elliott, DA, et al. (2014) A moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet reduces gain in body condition score when fed as part of a post neutering weight-control regimen in growing pet cats. J Nutr Sci 3, e40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lund, EM, Armstrong, PJ, Kirk, CA, et al. (2005) Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult cats from private U.S. veterinary practices. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 3, 8896.Google Scholar
Backus, RC, Cave, NJ & Keisler, DH (2007) Gonadectomy and high dietary fat but not high dietary carbohydrate induce gains in body weight and fat of domestic cats. Br J Nutr 98, 641650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weber, M, Bissot, T, Servet, E, et al. (2007) A high-protein, high-fiber diet designed for weight loss improves satiety in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 21, 12031208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carciofi, AC, Takakura, FS, De-Oliveira, LD, et al. (2008) Effects of six carbohydrate sources on dog diet digestibility and post-prandial glucose and insulin response. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 92, 326336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bjornvad, CR, Nielsen, DH, Armstrong, PJ, et al. (2011) Evaluation of a nine-point body condition scoring system in physically inactive pet cats. Am J Vet Res 72, 433437.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kawauchi, IM, Jeremias, JT, Takeara, P, et al. (2017) Effect of dietary protein intake on the body composition and metabolic parameters of neutered dogs. J Nutr Sci 6, e40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
1
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Neutering in dogs and cats: current scientific evidence and importance of adequate nutritional management
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Neutering in dogs and cats: current scientific evidence and importance of adequate nutritional management
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Neutering in dogs and cats: current scientific evidence and importance of adequate nutritional management
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *