To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Comparative studies of Drepanopeziza species
pathogenic to poplars established that for each species, holotype and herbarium
specimens of D. populorum, D. tremulae and
D. punctiformis were morphologically similar. Light and electron
microscope studies of
apothecia revealed that in radial longitudinal section, in apothecial
shape and the hypothecial and epithecial tissues of the three
species were similar. In general, ectal and medullary excipular tissues
D. populorum were more strongly developed than those of
D. tremulae and D. punctiformis. Asci and ascospores
D. populorum were larger than the other two species but because
were of limited use for species delimitation. In consideration of the
established synonymy of the anamorphs of D. tremulae and
D. punctiformis namely, Marssonina tremulae and
M. brunnea, respectively, and close morphological similarity of
synonymy of D. tremulae and D. punctiformis is
suggested, with D. tremulae having priority. Although not studied,
D. populi-albae is believed to be a distinct species. Accordingly,
three Drepanopeziza holomorphs are recognised on poplars:
D. populi-albae, anamorph=M. castagenei; D. populorum
anamorph=M. populi; and D. tremulae, anamorph=M.
The production of chloromethane (CH3Cl) by wood rotting
fungi of the Hymenochaetaceae is discussed with particular emphasis on
emissions by species of Phellinus and Inonotus.
Recent work on the metabolic role of CH3Cl as a methyl donor
in the biosynthesis of
secondary metabolites both in the Hymenochaetaceae and other families
of white-rot fungi is reviewed. The parameters affecting the
fungal emissions of CH3Cl in forest ecosystems are considered
and where possible quantified. The annual global input to the
atmosphere from this source is provisionally estimated at 160000 t of
which 75% is released from tropical and subtropical forests
and 86% is attributable to Phellinus. The possible impact of the
contribution from fungi and other biological sources on the
atmospheric CH3Cl burden and stratospheric ozone depletion is
The 29 spore-ball-forming smut fungus genera (of the total 58 recognized
genera) are analysed, grouped, briefly characterized and
illustrated. Problems within the genera, similarities, possible relationships
and differences between genera are discussed. The
following groups and genera are treated: genera with spores in pairs
(Schizonella, Mycosyrinx, Geminago), genera
spore balls composed of colourless spores and sterile cells and/or
modified mycelia (Burrillia, Doassansia, Doassansiopsis,
Heterodoassansia, Nannfeldtiomyces, Narasimhania,
Pseudodoassansia, Tracya), genera with permanent spore
balls composed of pigmented
spores and sterile cells (Urocystis, Moesziomyces,
Dermatosorus, Testicularia), and genera with spore balls
containing only spores and
lacking sterile cells between the spore balls. Within the latter group,
two sub-groups were distinguished: one with light,
brownish spores (Sorosporium, Thecaphora, Glomosporium,
Fulvisporium), and another one with dark, blackish spores (Tolyposporium,
Tolyposporella, Clintamra, Orphanomyces).
Heterotolyposporium has small, hyaline spores between the pigmented
spore balls. Sporisorium and Macalpinomyces have
sterile cells between the true or pseudo spore balls. Odd genera are:
Ustacystis, Mundkurella and Uleiella. A
key to the spore-ball-forming genera of smut fungi is given. The value
of the spore balls in the taxonomy of the Ustilaginales is
discussed. The arrangement of the genera in groups is based on the
most important characters of the spore balls. It has a practical,
didactic purpose and in many cases the groups do not reflect natural relationships.
The introduction of recombinant DNA technology in the field of
mushroom research has resulted in the cloning and characterization
of a large number of genes. In order to study the genetics of compost colonization
of A. bisporus, genes encoding enzymes involved
in utilization of this substrate have been isolated. In addition, a number
of genes which are induced in fruit bodies during fruit body
development have been cloned and they will provide more insight in the
genetics of this economically important aspect of the life
cycle. Other genes that were cloned encode proteins of basic biochemical
routes. They provide knowledge on the importance and
regulation of these routes in the life cycle of A. bisporus and
add to knowledge on the general architecture of A. bisporus genes.
we present an overview of the currently available biochemical and molecular
data of A. bisporus and we discuss the importance of
the available genes as genetic markers for breeding purposes.
Among the numerous items of equipment with the ‘Iceman’,
who died more than 5000 years ago on an alpine glacier, were three
fungal objects: two different shaped fruitbody pieces of the polypore
Piptoporus betulinus, each mounted separately on a leather
thong, and, found in his girdle bag, a relatively large quantity of
tinder material prepared from the ‘true tinder bracket’ Fomes
fomentarius. A full description of these items and a chronological
report on their identification is given. The question about the
possible use of the fungi is discussed on the basis of a comprehensive
collection of ethnomycological and pharmacological literature data.
Perhaps like many other mycologists, my initial encounters
with fungi filled me with a desire to engage with mysteries:
mysteries embedded in the diversity of form and function in
fungi and how this diversity might be related to the life of the
forest in which so many of these organisms appear to find
their homes. In all good mysteries, the resolution of underlying
causes at one level of comprehension only serves to reveal
deeper levels for exploration.This can open the way into a
cascade that nourishes a growing empathy with fellow beings
and so assuages that most fundamental need to have a sense
of belonging – to be as one; to be at peace; secure in the
knowledge of idiosyncrasies embraced in the fondness of
others. I dreamt that fungi would somehow eventually lead
me and my fellow travellers down that cascade. I still do.
Morphogenesis is not simply a matter of playing out a predefined
programme. Expression of developmentally important
genes is epigenetic and place- and time-dependent relying on previously-formed
tissue structures. Most differentiated hyphal cells
require reinforcement of their differentiation ‘instructions’.
This reinforcement is part of the context (chemical, electrical and
structural/mechanical environment) within which they normally develop.
Key words at each stage of development in fungi are:
competence, induction and change. Fungal morphogenesis is compartmentalized
into a collection of ‘sub-routines’ which are distinct
genetically and physiologically. Flexibility in expression of developmental
sub-routines illustrates that tolerance of imprecision is an
important attribute of fungal morphogenesis.
Coniophora eremophila and Antrodia
sinuosa cause brown heartrot in living lemon trees in
southern Arizona and California. They can
be distinguished in the field by differences in rot
characteristics. Both have a high optimum growth temperature
of approximately 35°C. Coniophora eremophila has
a cultural morphology typical of other Coniophora
species and did not fruit in culture. Antrodia
sinuosa cultures were morphologically similar to
previous reports and fruited readily under laboratory
conditions. Mating tests with
homokaryotic single spore isolates showed it to have a
heterothallic bipolar mating system. The decay capacity of
C. eremophila on
lemon wood test blocks under laboratory conditions was low
compared to that of A. sinuosa, five other brown
rot fungi, and three white rot fungi.
Acid phosphatase production by 12 Hebeloma
strains was usually derepressed when inorganic phosphorus in
the growth medium was
limited, but appeared to be constitutive in some strains.
At low temperatures ([les ]12°) arctic strains produced
more extracellular and
wall-bound acid phosphatase, yet grew more slowly than
the temperate strains. We suggest that low growth rates in
arctic strains may be a physiological response to cold
whereby resources are diverted into carbohydrate accumulation
for cryoprotection. At near
freezing temperatures, increased extracellular phosphatase
production may compensate for a loss of enzyme activity at low
temperature and serve to hydrolyse organic phosphorus in
frozen soil over winter.
This review summarizes existing information about mushroom lectins,
with an emphasis on those from the following species which
have been most extensively characterized including various Agaricus
species, Amanita pantherina, Boletus satanas, Coprinus
Ganoderma lucidum, Flammulina velutipes, Grifola
Hericium erinaceum, Ischnoderma resinosum,
Lactarius deterrimus, Laetiporus sulphureus,
Tricholoma mongolicum and Volvariella volvacea.
It is noted that the mushroom lectins exhibit a diversity of chemical
characteristics. Some of them are monomeric, whereas others are dimeric,
trimeric or tetrameric. Their molecular weights range from
12 to 190 kDa, and the sugar contents from 0 to 18%. Carbohydrate
specificities involve mainly galactose, lactose and N-acetylgalactosamine.
A small number of mushroom lectins are specific for fucose, raffinose,
N-glycolyneuraminic acid and N-acetyl-d-lactosamine.
Studies on immunomodulatory and antitumour/cytotoxic
activities have been carried out on lectins from Agaricus
bisporus, Boletus satanas, Flammulina velutipes,
Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Tricholoma mongolicum
and Volvariella volvacea.
Genetic characterization of 15 aggressive weed mould strains that
were identified morphologically as Trichoderma harzianum (sensu
Rifai) from mushroom compost in commercial units in North America (designated
T. harzianum group 4) was undertaken using
various molecular techniques. RFLP analysis of rDNA revealed homogeneity
these strains; a low level of polymorphism was
detected in mitochondrial DNA. RAPD analysis also indicated a very high
of homogeneity among the T. harzianum group 4
strains. Nucleotide sequence determination of the rDNA internal transcribed
spacer (ITS) 1 revealed five base pair differences
between T. harzianum groups 4 and 2. Comparison of molecular data
T. harzianum group 4 with that of T. harzianum group
which caused green mould epidemics in the mushroom industries of the British
indicated that T. harzianum group 4 is not the same as group 2.
The morphology of infection structure development of Puccinia
recondita f. sp. tritici on and in susceptible and resistant
inoculated with urediospores was examined by SEM. The germ-tube
extends over the leaf surface and elongates perpendicularly to
the long axis of the leaf. When the germ-tube encounters the stomatal
lip, an appressorium forms over the stoma and the pore is
entered by an infection peg produced on the surface of the appressorium
in contact with the host leaf. At 6 h post-inoculation (hpi),
infection pegs develop terminally substomatal vesicles (SSVs) in the
substomatal chambers of all wheat lines. A septum separates
each SSV from its interconnective tube. A primary infection hypha forms
terminally from the elongated SSV either parallel to the
long axis of the stomatal slit or perpendicular to the leaf surface. When
primary infection hypha attaches to a host cell, a septum
forms cutting off the tip of the hypha, delimiting a terminal haustorium
mother cell (HMC) by 12 hpi. Secondary infection hyphae
arise from a position proximal to, and in the proximity of, the HMC septum.
Additional HMCs are formed when a secondary hypha
or a tertiary hypha adheres to a plant cell. Infection sites with HMCs
observed at 24 hpi and at subsequent sampling stages.
There were no significant differences between the infection processes on
three wheat lines examined in this study.
The occurrence and relative abundance of Pythium species
were quantified by using a cucumber seed baiting assay and P10VP
medium, and compared among three long-term cropping systems: continuous
maize (CC), continuous soybean (SS) and maize
soybean rotation (CS) at two Iowa locations. Soil types were different
at the two locations. Four Pythium species were isolated,
P. ultimum, P. torulosum and P. paroecandrum
occurred in soils of all three cropping systems, and P. spinosum
occurred in one SS and
one CS field. More Pythium isolates were recovered from CS and
SS composite soil samples than from CC samples. P. torulosum was
isolated most frequently.
The suitability of random amplified polymorphic
DNA for identification of Pythium aphanidermatum
was investigated. Three
oligoprimers were selected after testing three isolates of
P. aphanidermatum and one isolate of P.
ultimum with a total of 40 primers.
The selected 10-mer primers were used with 20 isolates of
P. aphanidermatum, four isolates of P.
deliense, two isolates of P. ultimum,
two isolates of P. irregulare and one isolate of
P. paroecandrum. Most of the P.
aphanidermatum isolates (13 of 20), were obtained from
samples of Cucumis sativus, or water from
cucumber greenhouses. The three selected primers gave
identical fingerprints for 18 of the
20 P. aphanidermatum isolates, including all the
isolates from cucumbers. Two of the primers gave fingerprints
that could be used to
differentiate between isolates of the Pythium
species studied. The banding pattern of P.
aphanidermatum given by the third primer
could not easily be distinguished from the fingerprint of
P. deliense. However, when used in conjunction with
the other two primers,
the third primer can be used to verify the identity of
Arthrowallemia anam. gen. nov., characterized by
holothallic conidiogenesis, secession randomly schizolytic,
and cylindrical, septate,
brown conidia emerging from conspicuous unbranched conidiophores,
is described and illustrated. The type species, A. formosa sp.
nov., was collected on unidentified decaying leaves in Cuba.
Notes on similar genera are given.
Mycosphaerella tasmaniensis is newly described from
Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptoms occurring on Eucalyptus nitens
Australia. Single ascospore cultures produced a Mycovellosiella
anamorph, described here as M. tasmaniensis. Both states occurred
together, as well as separately on leaf spots. Phaeophleospora epicoccoides
(=Kirramyces epicoccoides) is commonly associated with leaf
spots of Eucalyptus spp. in Australia. The teleomorph, Mycosphaerella
suttoniae, previously known only from Indonesia, was also
collected on E. grandis leaves from Australia. A Cylindrocladium
blight disease of young E. grandis trees in Indonesia was found
to be associated with a new species of Calonectria. Calonectria
multiseptata and its anamorph Cylindrocladium multiseptatum
described and distinguished from other species based on their larger,
multi-septate ascospores and conidia.
Coniochaeta polymegasperma sp. nov. is described from
hare dung from Sutherland, Orkney and Inverness. With 64-spored asci, it
differs from other Coniochaeta spp. with asci with more
than eight spores by its much larger spores. Delitschia trichodelitschioides
nov. is described from hare dung from Sutherland and Inverness, differing
Delitschia spp. in its distinctively setose pseudothecial neck.
Two new species of Inonotus, I. chihshanyenus
and I. formosanus sp. nov. found growing saprotrophically on the
stems of Melicope merrillii and Persea zuilhoensis,
respectively, in Taiwan are described and illustrated. Their cultural characters
The orientation of individual urediniospores and spore
clusters of Uromyces viciae-fabae, during fall and after landing
in still air, was
recorded using high-speed video microscopy. Individual spores
and aggregates fell in a variety of orientations. On landing spore
clusters attached to the substratum without rebounding or fragmenting and
typically retained their orientation during fall. Some
aggregates landed and attached in orientations in which their mass was
asymmetrical with respect to their point of contact.
Attachment also occurred when spores fell onto spore aggregates which
had previously landed on the substratum. Rate of fall was
influenced by the orientation and size of cluster. When dispersed and
collected on substrata under simulated field conditions, the
orientation and attachment of urediniospore clusters were similar to
those of aggregates deposited in still air.