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This issue of Mycological Research News features: Fungi from coral reefs: a commentary. An obituary of Meinhard M. Moser (1924–2002), doyen of European agaricologists and a Centenary Fellow of the British Mycological Society, is also presented.
Molecular papers in this part include the characterization of an α-L-arabinofuranosidase gene in Penicillium, the proteomomics of development in a Phytophthora, the isolation of differentially expressed genes in Agaricus bisporus, and the demonstration of different genotypes in somatic cells of Armillaria.
Nitrogen utilization by Amanita in Australia is documented, and species antagonistic to Rhizoctonia cerealis are compared enzymatically. Probes to detect Rhizoctonia spp. and Suillus bovinus are also reported. A single Phyllosticta species can live as an endophyte in different plant families, while two morphologically identical Pseudocercospora species on different hosts are molecularly distinct. Two karyotypes occur in the cacoa Crinipellis perniciosa, and new molecular phylogenetic data on the Dermatocapron miniatum and Ophiostoma piceae complexes is presented. New species described include a Phytophthora pathogenic to trees and shrubs in wet sites, and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms from Guyana and India.
The following new scientific names are introduced in this part: Cortinarius conopileus, C. keralensis, C. phlegmophorus, Dermatocarpon taminium, Inocybe ayangannae, I. epidendron, I. lilacinosquamosa, I. pulchella, Phytophthora inundata, Pseudocercospora hibbertiae-asperae, P. platylobi spp. nov.; and D. tenue (syn. D. muhlenbergii var. tenue) comb. nov.
This issue of Mycological Research News features: Electronic manuscript submission and tracking; and Sex and stress in soil fungi.
Fifteen papers are presented. Molecular papers concern sebacinoid ectomycorrhizal fungi, relationships of the daisy rust Puccinia distincta, variability in Crinipellis perniciosa, the VCP1 protease in Pochonia chlamydosporia, and Venturia on poplars in the Pacific north-west.
The interactions of nematophagous fungi are explored, the effects of the mycoparasite Sphaerellopsis filum on Melampsora larici-epitea studied, and the action of mycoparasites on Sphaerotheca fusca examined. Effects of sugars on Tuber borchii mycelial growth are compared, and the dispersal role of cage-like ascomatal peridia is documented.
Taxonomic papers are concerned with Parmulariaceae, tropical polypores, and the lichenized hyphomycete genus Cheiromycina. In addition, four fossil fungi are described from amber deposits: three coelomycetes and the earliest report of a myxogastroid slime mould.
New scientific names introduced in this part are: Asteromites, Leptostromites, Leptothyrites, Mintera, Perenniporiella, and Viegasella gens. nov.; Arcyria sulcata, Asteromites mexicanus, Cheiromycina ananas, C. globosa, Leptostromites ellipticus, Leptothyrites dominicanus, P. pendula, and Venturia inopina spp. nov.; M. reticulata (syn. Parmularia reticulata), P. micropora (syn. Perenniporia micropora), P. neofulva (syn. Polyporus neofulvus), and Viegasolla pulchella (syn. Schneepia pulchella) combs.nov.
This issue of Mycological Research News features: How safe is Aspergillus niger?; Advantage, invasive plants; and Forthcoming international mycological meetings.
Sixteen original papers are included in this part. Those with a molecular or phylogenetic thrust address the polyphyletic nature of Paraphaeosphaeria, report the discovery of a teleomorph for Marchandiomyces, address the separation of Neofabraea spp., variation in Pythium insidiosum, the separation of cereal rusts, reveal a new Diplodia within Sphaeropsis sapinea auct., and demonstrate host-linked genotypes within Corynespora cassiicola. Telomere fingerprinting in Beauveria bassiana is reported, Hypocrella (incl. Aschersonia) spp. are shown to be cytotoxic to insect cells, and the efficacy of natural mycoparasites aginst cocoa diseases is demonstrated.
The separation of South American Polyporus spp. by isoenzymes, and of Agaricus spp. by volatiles using an electronic nose, is described. Alginate beads can be used to preserve arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi long-term, the basis of reduced aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus mixed cultures is deduced, and the importance of oxidative stress in sclerotial formation in Sclerotinia demonstrated. The results of an extensive seven-year study of macromycetes in Austria with implications for recording practices are also presented.
The following new scientific names are introduced: Marchandiobasidium, Neophaeosphaeria, and Phaeosphaeriopsis gens. nov.; Diplodia scrobiculata, M. aurantiacum, and P. amblyspora spp. nov.; N. barrii (syn. Paraphaeosphaeria barrii), N. conglomerata (syn. P. conglomerata), N. filamentosa (syn. Leptosphaeria filamentosa), N. quadriseptata (syn. P. quadriseptata), Phaeosphaeriopsis agavensis (syn. Paraphaeosphaeria agavensis), Phaeosphaeriopsis glauco-punctata (syn. Cryptosphaeria glauco-punctata), P. obtusispora (syn. L. obtusispora), and P. nolinae (syn. Paraphaeosphaeria nolinae) combs. nov.
This issue of Mycological Research News features: Davidiella, a new generic name for the teleomorph of Cladosporium s. str.; Will European forest fires favour Neurospora ascomata?; Programmed cell death alive and well in fungi; and Complex conidia as branched hyphal systems; An obituary for Colin Booth (1924–2003), a leading authority on Fusarium and a past-President of the British Mycological Society, is also presented.
A detailed review of chemical interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and toxic metal cations is followed by ten original research papers. These consider the molecular phylogenetics of Caloplaca and Xanthoria, Termitomyces spp. and related fungi, the separation of Linocarpon and Neolinocarpon spp. using ultrastructural features, the Leptosphaeria maculans–L. biglobosa complex, diversity within Hyaloperonospora parasitica and Thanatephoriu cucumeris (anamorph Rhizoctonia solani), the development of markers for studies within Phialocephala fortinii, host–parasite relationships in Hypomyces spp., hypovirulence in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and airborne mould spores in apartments.
No new scientific names are introduced in this part.
This issue of Mycological Research News features: European Mycological Association (EMA) founded; and Sudden death of soybean.
Molecular phylogenetic papers in this issue consider the relationships of Phytophthora ramorum, the circumscription of the Amphisphaeriaceae, the placement of Tholurna, comparisons between polyketide synthase gene and ITS sequences in Lecanora, the separtion of Aspergillus sect. Flavi species, the identification of Armillaria isolates in Japan, the occurrence of group 1 E introns in Gondwanamyces proteae and other fungi, and the fungi associated with Fucus serratus.
In addition, Trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum is shown to produce 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin which inhibits Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth, five models designed to describe the growth of entomopathogenic fungi are tested against data from four species, and the dynamics of Rhynchosporium secalis pathotypes on different cultivars are explored.
No new scientific names are introduced in this part.
Mycological Research News features: In this issue; Molecules vs morphology; The name Fusarium moniliforme should no longer be used; and Differential use of Termitomyces by termites.
Molecular methods are used in this issue to investigate the: phylogeography of Hyphoderma setigerum, Mycosphaerellaceae on Proteaceae, Xerocomus chrysenteron complex, identification of endophytes from Pinus tabulaeformis, root-inhabiting Cryptosporiopsis spp., discrimination of Pisolithus spp., variation in Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, Penicillium nalgiovense pencillin production impaired strains, and laccase genes in Trametes sp. Sexual reactions in Zygomycota are shown to be mediated by trisporoid compounds.
The use of particle filtration to study the diversity of rainforest leaf litter fungi is applied to Neolitsea dealbata, an unclamped Lentinellus has been rediscovered (and a key to allied European species provided), and the first fossil clavarioid fungus is described from Cretaceous amber.
The following new scientific names are introduced: Palaeoclavariaceae fam. nov.; Palaeoclavaria gen. nov.; Cryptosporiopsis rhizophila, P. burmites, Xerocomus cisalpinus spp. nov.; Lentinellus herbarum (syn. Lentinus flabelliformis var. herbarum), Mycosphaerella concentrica (syn. Gibbelina concentrica), M. fibrillosa (syn. Teratosphaeria fibrillosa), M. microspora (syn. T. microspora), M. proteae-arboreae (syn. T. proteae-arboreae), X. fennicus (syn. Boletellus fennicus) combs. nov. A lectotype is designated for the name Thelephora setigera (i.e. Hyphoderma setigerum), and a neotype for Lentinus flabelliformis var. herbarum (i.e. Lentinellus herbarum).
This issue of Mycological Research News features: Kelo trees: a vanishing fungal habitat; Polarized growth in fission yeast; Comparative genomics and functional elements in the yeast genome; When physics meets biology: high-resolution laser-based techiques to study plant–microbe interactions; and an Acknowledgement.
The largest molecular phylogenetic fungal tree yet to have been published is presented, based on 1551 sequences; this will be of interest to all concerned with fungal relationships, especially at family and higher levels. Hepatic mycorrhizas are described ultrastructurally and molecularly, and the relationships of the mycobionts determined. The cytology and behaviour of nuclei in tri- and tetraradiate conidia in coelomycetes is examined, and micronuclei are documented for the first time. Confocal laser scanning electron microscopy examines nuclei and ascospore formation using a methodology likely to have wide utility.
The conditions affecting the production of the siderophore rhodotorulic acid by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa have been investigated. The poisonous Clitocybe lactea produces phallatoxins, previously only known from Amanita spp., and its relationships are explored by molecular methods. Swainsonine, the cause of locoism in cattle etc. in the USA, is produced by endophytic fungi inside the plants consumed. The enyzmes produced by the lignin-degrading Mycena galopus and responsible for this activity have been investigated and identified.
The following new scientific names are introduced in this part: Cornutispora intermedia, C. pittii, and Furcaspora abieticola spp. nov.
This issue of Mycological Research News features: Nutrient transfer from birch to liverwort via a fungus; The mycosome hypothesis; Neurospora crassa has twice the genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe; and Mr Bloomfield's Orchard (Notice).
Original papers in this issue include one which provides the first visual evidence of condensation and decondensation during mitosis of rDNA in filamentous fungi, and the first ultrastructural study of the ascomata and asci of the primitive ascomycete genus Neolecta. Molecular phylogenetic studies on Phanerochaete spp., Epulorhiza isolates from tropical orchids, and Pleurotus subgen. Coremiopleurotus spp. are presented. Telomeric fingerprinting is shown to be valuable for karyotype estimation in Helicobasidium mompa, and heterologous diploid nuclei are demonstrated in that species. Recombination in Beauveria bassiana is explored through the production of heterokaryons.
The effects of light of different wavelengths on branch induction in Gigaspora gigantea are described, and the differential expression of selected genes of Glomus intradices on and near roots is documented. Hypodermal suberization is shown to limit infection in barley roots by Chaetomium globosum, and growth of Collybia fusipes in soil is reduced by soil waterlogging and low oxygen levels.
A new Ascobotryozyma has been discovered associated with nematodes in beetle bore holes in the USA.
The following new scientific name is introduced: Ascobotryozyma cognata sp. nov.
This issue of Mycological Research News features: Confusion over Amanita pantherina in Japan; Foliicolous lichens are benign; A plethora of bryophilous niches; and A longevity gene in Saccharomyces.
Fast-tracked for publication in this issue is the description of another new species of pathogenic Phytophthora, attacking deciduous trees in Europe. Specific primers for the detection of Pythium oligandrum in mushroom beds have been developed and tested. Puccinia tanaceti is shown to be more host-restricted than supposed. Transformation systems for Venturia inaequalis are compared, and the separation of Fusarium species causing crown and head blight of cereals, and also of Vericillium dahliae and V. tricorpus is described.
The genetic basis of Aspergillus parasiticus strains that do not form aflatoxins has been explored, and large insert had been found in an aflatoxin-producing A. flavus strain. Two genes involved in the early stage of melanin production in Colletotrichum lagenarium are reported, and pairing tests in Helocobasidium mompa show it to have a single incompatability factor. Strategies adopted for growth in toxic metal environments have been studied and factors affecting growth determined. Conditions to optimise growth in entomophthoralean fungi have been explored, the coffee berry borer in Mexico has been found to support a wider range of fungi than hitherto expected, and a new Monacrosporium able to trap nematodes as well as to parasitize fungal sclerotia has been discovered.
The following new scientific names are introduced in this part: Monacrosporium janus, and Phytophthora pseudosyringiae spp. nov.
This issue of Mycological Research News features: An Amanita muscaria fruit body with a pored hymenium; and Aspergillosis in sea fans. A review article considers the chemistry, biology , toxicology and ethnomycology of A. muscaria, and fast-tracked is a paper reporting double-stranded RNA elements in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms affected by MVX disease.
Molecular papers consider the population structure in Fomitopsis rosea, and the relationships of Sclerotium rolfsii and S. delphinii, present evidence for recombination in ‘asexual’ Alternaria spp., examine the genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia isolates from Lotus, and demonstrate polymorphisms in biosynthesis genes in Fusarium graminearum. DNA fingerprinting reveals differences in Pochonia chlamydosporia from different nematode hosts, and primers for the detection of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulate effective in soil have been devised.
Ascospore release and survival in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been studied in depth, and the anaerobic conditions for the production of the yeast-like morph of Rhizopus circinelloides described. The effects of tropical Xylariaceae as wood decay agents of hard- and soft-woods are compared.
Systematic papers consider Beverwykella and similar tropical aeroaquatic hyphomycetes, report the rediscovery of Basidiobolum fimbriatum, and describe a fossil Metacapnodium species from Baltic amber.
The following new scientific names are introduced in this part: Ramicephala gen. nov.; Beverwykella clathrata and R. sphaerospora spp. nov.; and Metacapnodium succinum comb. nov. (syn. Rosaria succina).